PALESTINE was the name applied by Herodotus and other Greek and Latin writers to the Philistine coastland, and sometimes also to the territory between it and the Jordan Valley. Early in the Roman Empire the name Palaestina was given to the region around Jerusalem. The Byzantines in turn named the province west of the Jordan River, stretching from Mount Carmel in the north to Gaza in the south, Palaestina Prima.
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany at the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock (see 1), Jerusalem, 1898. The Kaiser's visit was meant to signal to other European powers Germany's interest in the Arab East, and to strengthen German-Ottoman ties.
The Grand Serai (see 164, 393), housing local government offices, Jaffa, July 1908: A large Palestinian crowd gathers to celebrate the revolution in Constantinople popularly known by the Arabs as al-Hurriyyah (Ara
Jemal Pasha, a member of the "Young Turks" triumvirate, which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I, with his staff in Jerusalem. Jemal Pasha became governor general and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army in Syria-Palestine in 1914.
Jerusalem, 9 December 1917: British noncommissioned officers belonging to an advance party of the 219th Battalion, London Regiment, accepting the surrender of Jerusalem from Hussein Salim al-Husseini, mayor of Jerusalem (fourth right with cane).
The Citadel, Old City of Jerusalem, 11 December 1917: General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander in chief of the Allied Expeditionary Force, on the occasion of the proclamation of martial law after his entry into the city.
The Christian monastery of Mar Saba, commemorating a Byzantine ascetic of this name who died in A.D. 531. The monastery is located in the wilderness southeast of Jerusalem. Mar is the Arabic word for "saint." Many Palestinian Muslim shrines honor Hebrew prophets and Christian saints.
A Bonfils portrait of two young girls from Bethlehem. Each region in Palestine has its distinctive embroidery patterns and style for adorning women's clothing. The headdress often has coins sewn into it.
Hebron (aI-Khalil in Arabic). The Arabic name means "friend" or "companion," the reference being to Abraham, the "friend" or "companion" of God, who is believed by Muslims as well as Jews to have been buried in Hebron.
Jewish women praying at the Wailing Wall, Jerusalem. Throughout the centuries of Arab and Muslim rule in Palestine, Jews had free access to the Wailing Wall. Access became an issue only after the 1948 War and the resultant Palestinian diaspora.
The minaret of the White Mosque at Ramleh; also known as the Tower of the Forty Martyrs. Rebuilt in A.D. 1318, it was situated at the midpoint of the mosque enclosure's north wall. The mosque is otherwise in ruins. (Bonfils)
A soccer match in the Palestinian quarter of Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), outside the Old City walls to the northeast - perhaps the earliest photograph of a sports event in Jerusalem. Note the Muslim tomb in the foreground, extreme right.
St. George's British Anglican school for boys, founded in Jerusalem in 1899, was one of many schools established in the second half of the nineteenth century by European and American missionaries. Many of the students at St.
A comer of the Khalidi Library, Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1914. The library was established in 1900 through an endowment provided by the mother of Haj Raghib al-Khalidi (seated second from right).
The St. George's player on the left is Izzat Tannous, a Protestant Palestinian who became a medical doctor and a representative of the Palestine Arab Higher Committee at the United Nations General Assembly.
Ruhi al-Khalidi (1861-1913), elected from Jerusalem to the Ottoman Parliament in 1908 and 1912, and vice-president of the Parliament in 1911. Earlier in his career he had lectured at the Sorbonne and served as Ottoman consul general in Bordeaux.
Khalil Jawhariyyah was the brother of Wasif Jawhariyyah, a noted Christian Orthodox connoisseur, and the owner of one of the rich collections of photographs widely used in this album. Khalil is seen here in the uniform of a private in the Ottoman army during World War I.
Khalil Raad, a famous Palestinian Protestant photographer from Jerusalem, and the owner of another of the collections used in this album. He studied photography in Basel, and appears here in his Ottoman army uniform during World War I.
Sa'id al-Shawwa, a leading Gaza notable and grain exporter. After the British occupation, he became mayor of Gaza and a member of the Supreme Muslim Council - the highest body in charge of Muslim community affairs.
Nazif al-Khalidi, a Jerusalem engineer. He was one of the principal aides to the German chief engineer Meissner, who supervised the building of the Hijaz Railway, begun in 1900; this railroad linked Damascus and Medina.
Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, the elder statesman of Palestinian politics in the 1920s and early 1930s. A graduate of Maktab Mulkiye (Civil Service School) in Constantinople, he held important administrative positions in the Ottoman Empire.
He was the father of Abd aI-Qadir al-Husseini, who became a leader of the Palestinian resistance during the Great Rebellion of 1936-39 and again in the 1948 War (see 253, 396,