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From the British Occupation to the Great Palestine Rebellion, 1918-1935

On Strike

The Arab commercial center outside Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem, on strike during the Buraq (Wailing Wall) disturbances, 1929.

British Show of Force

British show of force, Jerusalem, August 1929.

Emergency Relief Committee

The Emergency Relief Committee (seen here in session at its headquarters in Jerusalem, 1929) was formed during the 1929 disturbances to aid afflicted Palestinian families.

Palestinian Women Outside High Commissioner's Jerusalem Residence

A delegation of Palestinian women outside the high commissioner’s residence in Jerusalem. The delegation protested the harshness of British measures against the Palestinians during the disturbances. The women wearing hats are Christian. Second left is Mrs.

Motorcade for Womens' Delegation

The motorcade of the women's delegation on its way to the high commissioner's residence.

The Shaw Commission of Inquiry: "disappointment ... and fear"

Members of the Shaw Commission of Inquiry, Jerusalem, October 1929. The Shaw Commission was sent by London to investigate the causes of the 1929 disturbances. Seated center is Sir Walter Shaw, chairman of the commission.

Mourning on Balfour Day (1)

Balfour Day, the Old City of Jerusalem, 2 November 1929. Palestinians and many Arabs commemorated the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) with mourning, as indicated by the black flags.

Mourning on Balfour Day (2)

Balfour Day, the Old City of Jerusalem, 2 November 1929. Palestinians and many Arabs commemorated the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) with mourning, as indicated by the black flags.

Funeral of Muhammad Ali

The funeral procession of Muhammad Ali, one of the foremost Indian Muslim religious leaders and scholars, escorted by Boy Scouts, Jerusalem, 23 January 1931.

Funeral of King Hussein of Hijaz

The funeral of King Hussein of Hijaz, Jerusalem, 4 June 1931.

A Palestinian conference, 1930

A Palestinian conference called on the eve of the departure of the Fourth Palestinian Delegation to London; Jerusalem, March 1930 (see 84). The First Delegation to London in 1921 was followed by two others in 1922.
Raghib al-Nashashibi, mayor of Jerusalem (see 196, 242, 352); and Alfred Roch, prominent Catholic businessman from Jaffa (see

Fourth Palestinian Delegation in London

Members of the Fourth Palestinian Delegation in London, April 1930. The women in the back row are Christian Palestinian secretaries accompanying the delegation. The three men in the same row are Palestinian correspondents in London for Arabic newspapers in Palestine.

The Rise of Political Activism

Young political activists from Nablus just released from prison (ca. 1930) call on their lawyer, Adil Zu'aiter (seated), to thank him for his efforts on their behalf.

Pan-Islamic Conference, 1931

The Pan-Islamic Conference, Jerusalem, December 1931.

Tunisian and Turkish delegates

Tunisian and Turkish delegates to the Pan-Islamic Conference with Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini (see 78). First left is the Tunisian scholar Abd al-Aziz al-Tha'alibi; the figure in the center is the Turkish philosopher Rida Tawfiq.

Istiqlal (Independence) Party

Members of the Istiqlal (Independence) Pan-Arab Party, founded in 1932.

King Faisal I of Iraq Funeral

The funeral cortege of King Faisal I of Iraq passing through Haifa, 1933. The king had died on a visit to Europe, and his body was en route to Iraq.

Aftermath outside of the New Gate

The aftermath of a Palestinian demonstration protesting Zionist mass immigration, New Gate, Jerusalem, 1933.

Intimidation by Air

Aerial show of force by the British over the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, 1933.

British Riot Police

British riot police, mounted and on foot, block the path of a demonstration protesting Zionist mass immigration, Jaffa, 27 October 1933.

Demonstration in Jaffa's Central Square

British mounted police charge into a crowd of demonstrators, Central Square, Jaffa, 27 October 1933.

Police Brutality

The bearded profile of a fallen man in the upper center of the photograph is that of the venerable Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini (see 78), who had been leading the demonstration shown above (see 109-

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini's Funeral

The funeral of Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, 27 March 1934. Al-Husseini died at the age of eighty-one. The trauma he had suffered at the hands of the British five months earlier in Jaffa (see 111) hastened his death.

First Palestinian Guerilla Operation

Shaikh Izz aI-Din al-Qassam, patriot, social reformer, and religious teacher from Haifa. His work and preaching were conducted mainly among the poorer classes.

Mount of Olives

Aerial view of the Mount of Olives, looking toward the Dead Sea.

Jericho's Orchards

Orchards in Jericho. Many wealthy Palestinians from Jerusalem had winter houses in Jericho.

Ein Karim

Ein Karim, west of Jerusalem

Silwan

The village and valley of Silwan, just east of the walls of Jerusalem, looking south. In the distance note Government House, the residence of the British high commissioner, on the so-called Hill of Evil Counsel!

Abu Ghosh

Abu Ghosh, about fourteen kilometers from Jerusalem, on the road to Jaffa.

Beit Sahur from Shepherds' Field

Beit Sahur seen from Shepherds' Field near Bethlehem, looking east.

Hills of Bethlehem

The hills of Bethlehem. Note the traditional headdress.

Auja River

Water mill on the Auja River near Jaffa.

Hills of Kolonia

Terraced hills seen from Kolonia, a village on the road to Jaffa about eight kilometers west of Jerusalem.

St. George Monastery

The Orthodox monastery of St. George on the Mount of Temptation in the wildemess near Jericho.

Casting Nets

Fishermen of the Sea of Galilee.

Extended Family

An extended family in the village of Beit Sahur, near Bethlehem.

Grains (1)

Grains: of 4,367,629 dunams under grain cultivation, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 4,152,438 dunams.

Grains (2)

Grains: of 4,367,629 dunams under grain cultivation, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 4,152,438 dunams.

Grains (3)

Grains: of 4,367,629 dunams under grain cultivation, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 4,152,438 dunams.

Grains (4)

Grains: of 4,367,629 dunams under grain cultivation, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 4,152,438 dunams.

Bananas

Bananas: 60 percent of the area planted with bananas was Palestinian-owned and cultivated.

Vines

Vines: 86 percent of the area planted with vines was Palestinian-owned and cultivated.

Melons

Melons: of 125,979 dunams planted with melons, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 120,304 dunams.

Olives

Olives: of 600,133 dunams, 99 percent was Palestinian-owned and cultivated.

Vegetable Distribution

Vegetables: of 279,940 dunams, 239,733 dunams were Palestinian-owned and cultivated.

Tobacco

Tobacco: the area under tobacco cultivation was restricted by the Mandatory government to avoid overproduction. Virtually all the land under tobacco cultivation was Palestinian-owned.

Livestock (1)

The animal wealth of the country was also largely Palestinian-owned.

Livestock (2)

The animal wealth of the country was also largely Palestinian-owned.

The Jaffa Orange: The Palestinian Gift to the World

#'s 149-157 Today the Jaffa orange is the agricultural product that is most closely associated with Israeli production. Yet Palestinian expertise had already developed the Jaffa orange before Zionist colonization of Palestine got under way.

Church of the Nativity

Bethlehem; the second tower from the left is that of the Church of the Nativity.

Looking Out to Sea

Jaffa, looking out to sea. Until 1936, before the development of the Haifa and Tel Aviv harbors, Jaffa was the main seaport of Palestine.

Jaffa's Central Square

Central Square, Jaffa, soon after the inauguration of the British Mandate. The building with pillars, on the right, is the Grand Serai (see 6, 393).

Nuzhah Quarter from Jaffa

Jaffa, looking toward the new Palestinian residential Nuzhah quarter, ca. 1935. Note the contrast in means of transportation with the previous photograph.

Home in Jaffa

A house interior, Jaffa, ca. 1935.

Tiberias (1)

Tiberias, looking south, ca. 1935. The mosque in the foreground, known as the Upper Mosque, was built at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

Tiberias (2)

Tiberias, looking north toward Mount Hermon, ca. 1935.

Taji Family Residence

The residence of the Taji family, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, ca. 1934.

Bab al-Silsilah

The fountain at Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), built during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66), the Old City of Jerusalem.

Taxi Stand

Taxi stand, Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, ca. 1928. Damascus Gate and the Old City walls (see 176) were also built by Suleiman the Magnificent.

View of the Old City

Looking west at the Old City of Jerusalem from the Palestine Archaeological Museum, ca. 1937. In the middle ground is Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate). The building nearest right is the al-Rashidiyyah Secondary School for Boys.

Looking Out Over Jerusalem

Looking northeast at a Palestinian residential quarter just outside Bab al-Zahirah, Jerusalem.

Snowed In

The Old City of Jerusalem under snow, looking toward the Mount of Olives.

Jazzar Mosque

The inner courtyard of the Jazzar Mosque at Acre, built in 1781 by Ahmad al-Jazzar, who in 1799 checked the advance of Napoleon through Palestine with the help of a British naval squadron commanded by Sir Sydney Smith.

Leah's Tomb

The tomb of Leah with embroidered drapery, in the Mosque of Abraham, Hebron.

Beersheba's Mosque

The mosque at Beersheba; its architecture is late Ottoman.

Gaza's Grand Mosque

The Grand Mosque in Gaza, originally a twelfth-century A.D. structure.

David's Tomb

The Muslim shrine and mosque at the site of the tomb of Nabi Daoud (the prophet David), outside the Old City walls, Jerusalem. (See 28 et al.)

The Via Dolorosa

The Via Dolorosa, Fifth Station of the Cross, in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, Jerusalem.

Khalil Raad's Shop

Khalil Raad's shop, Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem (see 72, 124, 125 , 126 , 127 ,

Pottery (1)

The ancient crafts of the potter.

Pottery (2)

The ancient crafts of the potter.

Spice Market

Suq al-Attarin (the Spice Market).

Wedding in Haifa

A Christian wedding, Haifa, 1930. The bridegroom is Hanna Asfour, a Catholic Palestinian lawyer (see 250, 270); the bride, Emily Abu Fadil.

Wedding in Wadi Hunayn

A Muslim wedding, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1935. The bridegroom is Nazif al-Khairi, a district officer; the bride, Samiyah Taji.

Tea Party

Mayor of Jerusalem Raghib al-Nashashibi (see 100, 242, 352), standing center, gives a tea party at his home in honor of Shaikh Abd al-Hayy al-Kitt

The Arab Medical Conference

The Arab Medical Conference (YMCA, Jerusalem, 1933), attended by physicians from various Arab countries.

Ali al-Kassar visits Jerusalem

Ali al-Kassar (front center), an Egyptian actor, visits friends in Jerusalem, 1934. Seated first right is Fawzi al-Ghosein from Ramleh, a graduate in law from Cambridge University, England.

Palestine Broadcasting Station

Palestinian musicians and singers at the Palestine Broadcasting Station, Jerusalem, 1936.

Masquerading as Indian Maharajas and Maharanis

Masquerading as Indian maharajas and maharanis at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Roch, Jaffa, 1924.

The Holy Sepulcher

The Holy Sepulcher, Maundy Thursday, 5 April 1934. Presiding is the Christian Orthodox patriarch. Precariously seated on the scaffolding is Wasif Jawhariyyah (wearing a fez) .

Haj Amin al-Husseini

Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 82), mufti of Jerusalem, flanked by Christian religious dignitaries, ca. 1930.

Visiting the Wailing Wall

Orthodox Jews and others in European dress returning from a visit to the Wailing Wall, mid-1930s (see 55, 90).

Celebrating Passover

Samaritan Jews (in the foreground) celebrating their Passover, Nablus, early 1930s. The Samaritans were a tiny Jewish sect numbering less than two hundred, most of whom lived in Nablus. They used Arabic for everyday speech, but a dialect of Aramaic in their liturgy.

Palestinian Christian Orthodox Conference

A conference of Palestinian Christian Orthodox priests, Ramallah, September 1932.

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi (holding a staff) visits the Haram aI-Sharif (see 1) in Jerusalem, ca. 1923. He was a leader of the Libyan Senussi tariqah, a religious brotherhood.

Celebrating Moses (1)

Al-Nabi Musa ("the Prophet Moses") was the name given to one of the most important annual religious festivals celebrated by Palestinian Muslims; it entailed a procession on foot or on horseback from Jerusalem to the traditional burial site of Moses, near Jericho (see

Celebrating Moses (2)

Al-Nabi Musa ("the Prophet Moses") was the name given to one of the most important annual religious festivals celebrated by Palestinian Muslims; it entailed a procession on foot or on horseback from Jerusalem to the traditional burial site of Moses, near Jericho (see

"The Least Worthy of You Are the Least Learned" (1)

Staff and alumni of the Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, ca. 1919 (see 61); a typical private school. The founder, Khalil Sakakini, is seated first left.

"The Least Worthy of You are the Least Learned" (2)

The Jerusalem Girls' College, ca. 1920; founded by a British Anglican mission. The staff are in the last two rows. The majority of the student body was Palestinian, both Christian and Muslim.

The Staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School

The staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. Seated center is Salim Katul, author of a series of textbooks in Arabic on the natural sciences.

Government Secondary Boys' School's Top Soccer Team

The top soccer team at the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. The men in the fezzes are members of the staff. Salim Katul (see 211) is standing first left.

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts with camping gear (transport included!), Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1924. The boy third left, first row, is carrying a bag with the Arabic word for "first aid" on it.

Government Secondary Boys' School Carpentry Class

Carpentry class, 1924. The inscription over the door reads, "The least worthy of you are the least learned."

Irfan (Knowledge) School

Students, including Wolf Cubs, and staff of the Irfan (Knowledge) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1922.

Najah School Staff and Graduating Class

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1918. It became the nucleus of the present Najah University on the West Bank.

Najah School

The student body, including Scout troops, and staff of the Najah School, Nablus, 1924.

Wataniyyah (National) School

The student body and staff of the private Wataniyyah (National) School, Jerusalem, 1925. Seated center is the indefatigable founder and headmaster, Khalil Sakakini (see 61, 209).

Salahiyyah School

The staff of the private Salahiyyah School (so called after Saladin), Nablus, 1926.

The All-Palestine Boy Scout Jamboree

Bir Salim, near Ramleh, 1926. Seated center, third row, is Humphrey Bowman, British director of the Department of Education.

Ladies in a Kindergarten

"Sample" of the kindergarten class at a German Protestant mission school, Schmidt Girls' College, Jerusalem, 1926 (see 241). The young ladies in the picture are all from the same family, the Tajis of Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh.

Young Men's Muslim Association

The founding members of the YMMA - the Young Men's Muslim Association - modeled on the YMCA; Acre, 1928.

The Acre Sports Club

Members of the Sports Club, Acre, 1928. Third right, second row, is Ahmad Shukairi (see 69, 105), later to become chairman of the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization).

Graduates of British Universities

Palestinian students at British universities celebrating the wedding of one of their members, Izz aI-Din al-Shawwa, London, 1928.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (1)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its old premises, Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, 1930.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (2)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its new premises on Jabal al-Mukabbir, "the Mount of the Glorifier," south of Jerusalem, 1938. (This was the site from which the caliph Omar, on his way to Jerusalem to accept its capitulation from the Byzantines in A.D.

...And Its Base: The Village School (1)

At the other end of the spectrum were the village schools. The two schools pictured here are typical of some 420 village schools that existed in Palestine by the end of the Mandate.

...And Its Base: The Village School (2)

At the other end of the spectrum were the village schools. The two schools pictured here (228 and 229) are typical of some 420 village schools that existed in Palestine by the end of the Mandate.

College des Freres

The staff and graduating class of the College des Freres in Jerusalem, 1934. This secondary school was founded by the Franciscan Order in 1875.

Moroccan Students in Nablus

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1932.

Terra Sancta

Terra Sancta College for Boys in Jerusalem, 1932; also founded by the Franciscan Order (see 230).

Palestinian Teachers in Iraq

Young Palestinian teachers pursuing higher studies in Iraq, 1934. Seated center is Akram Zu'aiter, then lecturer at the Teachers' Training College, Baghdad. This photograph illustrates again the cultural interaction between Palestine and the Arab world.

Music in Jaffa (1)

Students of the National Christian Orthodox School, Jaffa, 1938. The school was founded in 1921 by the Christian Orthodox Welfare Society.

Music in Jaffa (2)

School band of the National Christian Orthodox School, Jaffa, 1938. The school was founded in 1921 by the Christian Orthodox Welfare Society.

Rowing on the Cam

Abdurrahman Bushnaq (graduate of the Arab College in Jerusalem), stroke of Jesus College rowing crew (second left), on the River Cam, Cambridge University, where he read English literature, 1935.

The Arab College in the 1940s (2)

Brushing up their Latin. The lecturer, George Hourani, graduated from Oxford University and wrote several books including Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times (Princeton University Press, 1951) and Islamic Rationalism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971).

Schmidt Girls' College Again

The older ladies at the school, Jerusalem, 1947 (see 222).

The Arab Bank Ltd. Annual Report

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

Readings in Philology and Literature

Readings in Philology and Literature, by Khalil al-Sakakini.

My Vision

My Vision, by Arif al-Arif.

Modern Science and Us

Modern Science and Us, by Is'af al-Nashashibi.

Lectures in Mercantile Law

Lectures in Mercantile Law, by Francis Khayyat.

Homer's "Odyssey"

Translation of "The Odyssey" of Homer, by Anbarah Salam al-Khalidi.

The Arab Awakening

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

The Palestine Arab Case

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

Bedouin Love: Law and Legend

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

Arab Industrial Exhibition

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

The Palestine Arab Workers Society

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

Studies in Palestinian Customs and Folklore

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

The New Palestine by Constantin Theodory

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

The Arab Higher Committee Members

The Arab Higher Committee, comprising representatives of all Palestinian parties, was formed on 25 April 1936. One of its first acts was to call for a general strike and civil disobedience "to continue ... until ...

Introduction: From the British Occupation to the Great Palestine Rebellion 1918-1935

THE end of World War I brought bitter disappointment and a pervasive sense of foreboding to the Palestinians, as news spread of the secret agreements between the Western powers and particularly of the Balfour Declaration.

Zionist Colonies Map (1)

Zionist colonies in Palestine at the beginning of the British Mandate, 1920.

Chronology, 1919-1936

1919

January: Paris Peace Conference decides conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule.

Arrival of Sir Herbert Samuel

Jaffa, June 1920: Sir Herbert Samuel (in white peaked helmet), a British Zionist politician appointed as first high commissioner, about to set foot on Palestinian soil to inaugurate the British civilian administration.

Search of a Muslim Dignitary

Jerusalem, April 1920. Indian troopers in the British army evenhandedly search a Muslim dignitary.

Search of a Christian Priest

Jerusalem, April 1920. Indian troopers in the British army evenhandedly search a Christian priest.

Third Palestinian National Congress

The Third Palestinian National Congress, Haifa, 14 December 1920. Delegates to the congress represented the main cities and districts of Palestine.
Third right, last row, is the future Palestinian leader Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 88, 100, 202,

Fourth Palestinian National Congress

The Fourth Palestinian National Congress, Jerusalem, 25 May 1921. (See 87, 89).

First Palestinian Delegation to UK

The First Palestinian Delegation to the United Kingdom in working session in London, 1921. Two of the six-man delegation (first and fourth left) were Christian Palestinians.

First Delegation in Geneva

The First Delegation in Geneva to attend the Syrian- Palestinian Conference, timed to coincide with the League of Nations' meeting to discuss the proposed Mandatory system.

Memorandum to Winston Churchill (1)

" ... the people of Palestine will not be satisfied with promises that some control of their own destinies will be given to them in the future, . . . The Palestine people will never admit the right of any outside organization to dispossess them of their country, ...

Memorandum to Winston Churchill (2)

" ... the people of Palestine will not be satisfied with promises that some control of their own destinies will be given to them in the future, . . . The Palestine people will never admit the right of any outside organization to dispossess them of their country, ...

Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa

The Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa, October 1925 (see 68, 82-83, 87).