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From the London Conference to the UN Partition Recommendation, 1939-1947

Introduction: From the London Conference to the UN Partition Recommendation 1939-1947

THE period between the end of the Great Rebellion and the events of 1948 unfolded in two phases: the war years (1939-45) and the two years immediately following (1945-47). During the first phase the Palestinians were generally quiescent. Their passivity was due partly to the brutality and thoroughness of the British repression of the rebellion, and partly to the relatively reassuring provisions of the 1939 White Paper on Zionist immigration and land acquisition. Other contributing causes were the economic war boom brought about by an increased level of expenditure on the part of British and Allied forces deployed in the Middle East, and the pronouncements made by British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden in favor of postwar Arab unity - a cause popular with Palestinian and other Arab nationalists.

Chronology 1940 - 1947

1940

February 28: Publication of Land Transfers Regulations, provided for in White Paper of 1939; regulations protect Palestinian land rights against Zionist acquisition.

Palestinian Volunteers Against the Axis

In spite of their bitterness at the brutality of the British suppression of their rebellion, about nine thousand Palestinians volunteered during World War II for service in the British forces against the Axis powers. Some of these volunteers are seen here on parade in Nablus in May 1941.

The Stern Gang Assassinates Lord Moyne

Lord Walter Moyne (1880-1944), close friend of Winston Churchill, British colonial secretary in 1941-42, and subsequently minister resident in the Middle East.

The Irgun and Transjordan

A poster of the Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization), "Irgun" for short, which began its terrorist campaign against the Palestinians in September 1937, and was the parent body of the Stem Gang.

Menachem Begin and Vladimir Jabotinsky

Menachem Begin, former prime minister of Israel, addressing a rally soon after the establishment of Israel.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (1)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (2)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (3)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Illegal Immigration (1)

At the end of World War II, the Zionist leadership decided to undermine the British regime in Palestine as a prelude to the establishment of a Jewish stat

Illegal Immigration (2)

At the end of World War II, the Zionist leadership decided to undermine the British regime in Palestine as a prelude to the establishment of a Jewish state.

The King David Hotel (1)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

The King David Hotel (2)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

Arms Dumps in the Colonies (1)

Many of the Zionist colonies (see 296, 297, 298) had arms dumps hidden among their civilian population and beneath ostensibly civili

Arms Dumps in the Colonies (2)

Many of the Zionist colonies (see 296, 297, 298) had arms dumps hidden among their civilian population and beneath ostensibly civili

Arab League Warnings

A meeting of the Political Committee of the Arab League in Bludan, Syria, June 1946. The committee expressed concern about the rising tide of Zionist terrorism in Palestine, and protested increasing American support of Zionism.

Haifa Railroad Station

The railroad station at Haifa blown up by Zionist terrorists, fall 1946.

Hostage Taking by the Irgun

Hostage taking and sometimes the murder of hostages were two terrorist practices introduced by the Irgun under Menachem Begin. This photograph shows the bodies of two British army sergeants, Clifford Martin (left) and Mervyn Paice.

The Haganah Starts its Offensive

The farmhouse of the Abu Laban family, prosperous Palestinian orange growers, near Petah Tikva.

Acre

Acre, looking south toward the Old City and the new suburbs beyond. By the end of the Mandate the total population of Acre was ca. 12,360, of whom ca. 50 were Jews and the rest Palestinians.

The Town of Safed, northern Galilee

The town of Safed in northern Galilee; the round objects in the foreground are "hay cakes" drying in the sun (they were placed under cooking vessels to protect the latter from direct contact with the fire) . By the end of the Mandate the total population of Safed was ca. 11,930, of whom ca.

Ramallah's terraces and houses

Houses and terraces of Ramallah. By the end of the Mandate the total population of Ramallah was ca. 5,000, all of whom were Palestinians, the majority Christians. Ramallah was captured by Israel during the 1967 War.

Nablus

The population of Nablus (ca. 23,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian.

Hebron, from a balcony

Hebron, from a balcony. The population of Hebron (ca. 25,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian. The city was captured by Israel in 1967.

Gaza from Jabal Muntar

Gaza, from Jabal Muntar, 1943. The population of Gaza (ca. 34,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian. The city was captured by Israel in 1956, and again in 1967.

Aerial view of Beit Jala

Beit Jala, near Bethlehem, from the air. At the end of the Mandate its population was ca. 4,000, almost all of whom were Christian Palestinians. The village was captured by Israel in 1967.

The Stout Sea Walls of Acre

The stout sea walls of Acre, originally constructed in the ninth century A.D.

Jaffa, mid-1940s

Jaffa in the mid-1940s. By the end of the Mandate Jaffa's population was about 100,000, of whom about 30 percent were Jews and the rest Palestinians.

A villa in Ramallah

Distinctive local architecture: a villa in Ramallah.

Interior of al-Aqsa Mosque

Colonnaded interior of the al-Aqsa Mosque. Note the stained-glass windows.

The Mihrab

The mihrab ("niche pointing in the direction of Mecca") and minbar ("pulpit") of the al-Aqsa Mosque.

Jerusalem street scene

Jerusalem street scene outside Jaffa Gate, early 1940s.

The Tannous Building

The Tannous building (owned by a Protestant Palestinian family), West Jerusalem, where much of the property was Palestinian-owned, early 1940s.

A house in Talbiyya, West Jerusalem

A house in the Palestinian residential quarter of Talbiyya, West Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (1)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (2)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (3)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Jerusalem's Arab Fair

The Arab Fair when it was first held in Jerusalem, 1933.

Hassan Shak'ah soap factory

Wrapping soap in the Hassan Shak'ah factory, Nablus, ca. 1940.

Matches

Match factory, Nablus, 1940.

Tatli-Sert Tobacco

Bales of Tatli-Sert tobacco in storage, Nazareth, ca. 1940.

Arab Cigarette and Tobacco Co.

The packaging of cigarettes at the Arab Cigarette and Tobacco Company, Nazareth, ca. 1940.

Faidi aI-AIami and family

Faidi aI-AIami with his wife and son Musa, Jerusalem, 1919 (see 67). Musa received a law degree from Cambridge University.

Reverend Salih Saba and family

Reverend Salih Saba and family, Jerusalem, ca. 1922. Fuad Saba (standing first left) was the first Palestinian licensed auditor to practice under the British Mandate. By 1948 the F. Saba Company had branches in Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Egypt.

Schoolmasters

Schoolmasters, Jaffa, ca. 1923. Seated is Thabit al-Khalidi, author of a chemistry textbook, who became Jordanian ambassador to the United Nations and later to Iran.

Family Portrait

A prominent Muslim family, Jaffa, mid-I920s.

Guard of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem

Guard of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem in the traditional costume of the qawwas ("consular guard").

Dr. Daoud Bulos and family

Dr. Daoud Bulos, a Protestant medical doctor, with his wife Adla and son Nasib (later a lawyer), Acre, 1923.

Akram Zu'aiter and Ahmad Shukairi

The two young men in the front row of this photograph are left, Akram Zu'aiter (see 233, 235) and right, Ahmad Shukairi (see 69,

Hashim al-Jayyusi

Hashim al-Jayyusi (1901-81), mayor of Tulkarm from 1939 to 1948 (see 376). Subsequently, he served six times as Jordanian minister of finance and was acting prime minister and deputy speaker of the Senate in Jordan.

Villagers from Deir Yassin

Villagers from Deir Yassin, 1927. Building contractor Haj Ahmad al-As'ad with his son Muhammad, his wife (resting her hand on his shoulder), and a relative. (See 411)

Raghib al-Nashashibi

Raghib al-Nashashibi (see 100, 196, 242), an outstanding public figure under the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate, and the Jordanian administration.

Mrs. Tawfiq Bisisu with her children

Mrs. Tawfiq Bisisu with her children, Gaza, 1933. Proudly holding a magazine is Mu'in, later a poet and playwright closely associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

Ibrahim Tuqan

Palestine's poet laureate, Ibrahim Tuqan, a graduate of the American University of Beirut; NabIus, 1934. From 1936 to 1941 Tuqan was in charge of the Arabic section of the Palestine Broadcasting Station.

Khalil Baydas

Khalil Baydas from Nazareth (1874-1949), Russian scholar and pioneer of the modern Palestinian novel. As early as 1898, he had translated some of the works of Tolstoy and Pushkin into Arabic. Khalil was the father of Yusuf Baydas, a Palestinian banker.

Adil Zu'aiter

Adil Zu'aiter (see 102) with his two sons, Wa'il (on his lap) and Umar, Nablus, 1935. Umar became an artillery officer in Kuwait.

Hasan Sidqi al-Dajani

Hasan Sidqi al-Dajani, a Jerusalem journalist, lawyer, and politician. As legal counsel to the Palestinian Union of Drivers, he organized the strike by the transport sector in 1936 at the beginning of the Great Rebellion (see 242ff.).

Muna Asfour

Muna Asfour, later married to architect Bahij Saba (now an American citizen), Haifa, 1937.

A Day at the Sea

Charlotte Jallad (center) from Jaffa, with friends on a trip to the Dead Sea, 1937.

Palestinian Students at the American University in Beirut

A predominantly Palestinian group of political science students at the American University of Beirut, 1937.

Asma Tubi and Safiyyah Riyahi

Palestinian author Asma Tubi from Nazareth (on arm of chair); and Safiyyah Riyahi from Jaffa (seated), who became a lecturer in Arabic at Beirut College for Women; 1938.

George Antonius

After graduating from Cambridge University, George Antonius (1891-1942) began his civil service career in Palestine first in the Education Department and then in the Secretariat (the British Mandatory Executive).

Gather around

Except three gentlemen (the second, third, and fourth from the left in the first standing row), all the others are Christian Palestinians representing a cross-section of ages and professions.

The occasion for this gathering is unknown; the location, Nablus; the date, ca. 1925.

Shepherds and a Schoolmaster

Shepherds and a schoolmaster, with their respective flocks, cross paths outside the Church of All Nations, Gethsemane.

Palestine Broadcasting Station's "Oriental band"

The "oriental band" (takht) of the Palestine Broadcasting Station entertaining guests at a private party, Jerusalem, 1940.

Government Girls' School

Girl Guides of the Government Girls' School in Nazareth, 1940.

Dancing in the gymnasium

Dancing in the gymnasium, Jerusalem Girls' College, early 1940s.

The Merchant of Venice in Ramallah

Performers in The Merchant of Venice at the Friends' Boys School, Ramallah, ca. 1941. Sa'id Abu Hamdeh, later a professional photographer, is first right.

An-Najah English Debating Society

The English Debating Society of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1942. Isam Abbasi (standing second from right) became a poet and novelist as well as literary contributor to al-Ittihad, a newspaper in Haifa.

Ruth Raad

Ruth Raad, daughter of photographer Khalil Raad, in the traditional costume of Ramallah, ca. 1943.

Moghannam Moghannam

Moghannam Moghannam, an American-educated Protestant lawyer from Ramallah in the "oriental" room of his house, ca. 1944.

Transjordanian Frontier Force

Troopers of the TJFF (Transjordanian Frontier Force), recruited mostly from among Palestinians, prepare to leave for London to attend victory celebrations at the end of World War II.

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine, Gaza, 1945. In the front row, left to right, are Hashim al-Jayyusi (see 350), Rushdi al-Shawwa (Gaza), Omar Bitar (Jaffa), Shaikh Mustafa al-Khairi (Ramleh), and Suleiman Tuqan (Nablus).

Time for a bath

Aliyyah al-Khairi bathing her son Fawwaz (now an airline pilot), Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1945.

Leaders of the Arab Protestant Community of Palestine

Leaders of the Arab Protestant community of Palestine, 1946. Reverend Butrus Nasir from Bir Zeit is seated third from left.

Wajidah Taji

Wajidah Taji, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1946. Wajidah became principal aide to Musa al-Alami (see 343) at the Boys' Farm in Jericho, run by the Arab Development Society.

Mayor Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari

Muslim dignitaries conferring in the courtyard of the Ibrahimi (Abraham) Mosque, Hebron, 1947 (see 180). The mayor of Hebron, Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari, is on the right.

George Shibr

The board of directors and some members of the Arab Architects' and Engineers' Association of Jerusalem at the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, 1947.

Dr. Nimr Tuqan

Dr. Nimr Tuqan, a pathologist and brilliant mimic from Nablus, with nurses at the Haifa Government Hospital, 1947. The brother of Ibrahim Tuqan (see 355), he became chief pathologist at the American University Hospital in Beirut.

Women's Teachers' Training College

A singing recital at the Women's Teachers' Training College, Jerusalem, spring 1947.

Schmidt Girls' College

Boarders at Schmidt Girls' College in the orange orchards of Jericho, 1947.

Beit Jala Wedding

Wedding portrait of Dr. Jabra al-A'raj and his bride, Lydia, Beit Jala, ca. 1947.

Anton Attallah

Anton Attallah, judge in the district courts of Jerusalem and Haifa (1939-43), deputy mayor of Jerusalem (1944-46), and minister of foreign affairs for Jordan (1963-67).