1919

January: Paris Peace Conference decides conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule.

January 27-February 10: First Palestinian National Congress, meeting in Jerusalem, sends to peace conference two memoranda rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence.

March 25: Peace conference decides to send international commission of inquiry to ascertain aspirations of Near East peoples.

June-July: Henry C. King and Charles R. Crane, U.S. members of international commission of inquiry, proceed to Near East alone after failure of Britain and France to join commission.

June 28: Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations Covenant signed.

July 2: General Syrian Congress, held in Damascus and attended by Palestinian delegates, announces its rejection of Balfour Declaration.

August 28: Report of King-Crane Commission of Inquiry, submitted to Paris Peace Conference, recommends that "the project for making Palestine distinctly a Jewish commonwealth should be given up."

1920

March: General Syrian Congress proclaims independence of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Transjordan, with Prince Faisal as king.

April: Disturbances break out in Palestine due to fears of Zionism and nonfulfillment of promises of independence; five Jews killed and 200 wounded. British appoint Palin Commission of Inquiry.

British remove Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, mayor of Jerusalem, from office for opposing their pro-Zionist policies.

April 25: Supreme Council of San Remo Peace Conference assigns Palestine Mandate to Britain without consent of Palestinians.

May: British prevent Second Palestinian National Congress from convening.

July 1: British civilian administration inaugurated; Sir Herbert Samuel appointed first high commissioner.

August 26: First Immigration Ordinance sets quota of 16,500 Jewish immigrants for first year.

December: Third Palestinian National Congress, meeting in Haifa, elects Executive Committee, which remains in control of Palestinian political movement from 1920 to 1935.

1921

May-June: Fourth Palestinian National Congress, convening in Jerusalem, decides to send Palestinian delegation to London to explain Palestinian case against Balfour Declaration.

Syrian-Palestinian Conference held in Geneva.

May 1: Outbreak of disturbances in Jaffa protesting Zionist mass immigration; 46 Jews killed and 146 wounded.

May 8: Haj Amin al-Husseini appointed mufti (highest Muslim religious dignitary) of Jerusalem.

October: Haycraft Commission of Inquiry attributes Jaffa disturbances to Palestinian fears of steadily increasing Zionist mass immigration.

1922

February: Second Palestinian Delegation to London announces its rejection of Balfour Declaration to British Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill, and demands national independence.

June 3: Churchill issues White Paper of 1922 on Palestine interpreting British concept of Jewish "national home," and excluding Transjordan from scope of Balfour Declaration.

June 30: U.S. Congress endorses Balfour Declaration.

July 24: League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine without consent of Palestinians.

August: Fifth Palestinian National Congress, meeting in Nablus, agrees to economic boycott of Zionists. (See 1901 entry on Keren Kayemeth.)

October: First British census of Palestine shows total population of 757,182, with 78 percent Muslim, 11 percent Jewish, and 9.6 percent Christian.

1923

January: Resigning from Zionist Executive, Polish Zionist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky calls for forcible colonization of Palestine and Transjordan.

September 29: British Mandate for Palestine comes officially into force.

1925

Jabotinsky forms Revisionist Party with aim of "revising" Mandate to include colonization of Transjordan.

March: Palestinian general strike protests private visit by Lord Balfour to Jerusalem.

October: Sixth Palestinian National Congress convenes in Jaffa.

1928

June: Seventh Palestinian National Congress convenes in Jerusalem.

September 24: First attempt by some Jewish religious leaders to change "status quo" at Wailing Wall.

November: Islamic Conference, meeting in Jerusalem, demands protection of Muslim property rights at Wailing Wall, itself a Muslim holy site.

1929

August 15: First political demonstration by militant Zionist groups at Wailing Wall.

August 23-29: Palestinians riot in several towns in reaction to militant demonstrations at Wailing Wall. In resulting clashes, 133 Jews killed and 339 wounded; 116 Palestinians killed and 232 wounded, mostly at hands of British military.

October: General conference convenes in Jerusalem to formulate Palestinian position on Wailing Wall controversy.

1930

January 14: League of Nations Council appoints international commission to investigate legal status of Palestinians and Jews at Wailing Wall.

March: British-appointed Shaw Commission of Inquiry reports on 1929 disturbances; it attributes causes to fact that "the Arabs have come to see in Jewish immigration not only a menace to their livelihood but a possible overlord of the future."

March 30: Fourth Palestinian Delegation arrives in London.

May: Fourth Palestinian Delegation to London announces British rejection of its demands for (1) cessation of Zionist mass immigration to and land acquisition in Palestine, and (2) establishment of democratic, representative government.

August 6: Jewish Agency for Palestine, enlarged in 1929 to include Zionist and prominent non-Zionist Jewish leaders from various countries, recognized by Britain.

October: Sir John Hope-Simpson, appointed to inquire into problems of land settlement, immigration, and development in Palestine, reports there is no room for substantial number of Jewish settlers on the land.

British Colonial Secretary Lord Passfield (Sidney Webb) issues White Paper of 1930 on Palestine, which takes note of views expressed by Hope-Simpson and Shaw commissions of inquiry.

December: International Wailing Wall Commission recommends restoration of status quo ante, and confirms Muslim property rights at Wailing Wall.

1931

February 14: In letter to Chaim Weizmann, Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald virtually retracts Lord Passfield's White Paper of 1930.

October: General Sir Arthur Wauchope succeeds Sir John Chancellor as high commissioner.

November 18: Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,035,154, with 73.4 percent Muslim, 16.9 percent Jewish, and 8.6 percent Christian.

December: Lewis French, British director of development for Palestine, publishes report on "landless Arabs."

December 16: Pan-Islamic Congress held in Jerusalem and attended by 145 delegates from all parts of Muslim world.

1932

August 2: Formation of Istiqlal (Independence) Party as first regularly constituted Palestinian political party.

1933

March: Arab Executive Committee (see December 1920) declares Zionist mass immigration "has terrified the country."

July 14: British secretary of state issues statement on resettlement of Palestinian tenant farmers displaced from land acquired by Zionists.

October: Arab Executive Committee calls for general strike to protest British pro-Zionist policies, especially sponsorship of Zionist mass immigration; disturbances break out in main towns.

1934

February: Special commission of inquiry under Sir William Murison reports on causes of 1933 disturbances.

December 2: Defense Party founded.

1935

March 27: Palestine Arab Party founded.

June 23: Reform Party gounded.

October 5: National Bloc Party founded.  Together with Istiqlal Party these four parties become principal Palestinian political parties.

October: Revisionists quit World Zionist Organization to form New Zionist Organization, with aim of forcibly “liberating” Palestine and Transjordan.

Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization) founded by dissident members of Haganah; Jabotinsky named commander in chief.

Large quantity of arms smuggled from Belgium by Zionist groups, discovered at Jaffa port.

November: Shaikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam, leading first Palestinian guerrilla group, dies in action against British security forces.

November 25: Leaders of Palestinian political parties submit joint memorandum to British high commissioner requesting cessation of Zionist mass immigration and land acquisition, and establishment of government on basis of proportional representation.

December 21-22: High commissioner proposes establishment of 28-member Legislative Council with Palestinians holding only 14 seats. Palestinians accept proposal in principle.

1936

March 25: Legislative Council proposal defeated by pro-Zionist members in British House of Commons