1936

April 16: Two Palestinians living near Petah Tikva shot dead by Zionist assailants.

April 20-30: National Committees established in all Palestinian towns and large villages.

April 21: Leaders of all five Palestinian political parties call for general strike.

April 25: Leaders of Palestinian political parties constituted as Arab Higher Committee under chairmanship of Haj Amin al-Husseini.

May 8: Conference of all National Committees, meeting in Jerusalem, calls for no taxation without representation. Great Rebellion begins.

May 11: British bring military reinforcements from Malta and Egypt into Palestine.

May 18: British appoint Royal Commission to investigate causes of rebellion.

June: British demolish parts of Old City of Jaffa as punitive measure.

June 30: All Palestinian members of civil service and judiciary submit joint memorandum to high commissioner protesting British pro-Zionist policies.

August 25: Guerrilla leader Fawzi al-Qawukji enters Palestine at head of 150 volunteers from Arab countries to aid rebellion against British.

August 30: Arab Higher Committee announces continuation of general strike, but expresses readiness to accept mediation by Arab heads of state.

September 22: Additional British reinforcements arrive in Palestine; extensive military operations initiated against Palestinian rebellion.

October 11: Arab Higher Committee accepts appeals by kings of Saudi Arabia and Iraq, and emir of Transjordan, to call off general strike.

November 11: Royal Commission, under chairmanship of Lord Peel, arrives in Palestine.

1937

January 18: Royal (Peel) Commission leaves Palestine.

July 7: Publication of Royal (Peel) Commission's report recommending partition of Palestine into Jewish state, Arab state (to be incorporated into Transjordan), and British Mandatory enclaves, as well as forcible transfer, if necessary, of Palestinian population out of Jewish state.

July 23: Arab Higher Committee rejects Royal Commission's partition proposal and demands independent unitary Palestinian state "with protection of all legitimate Jewish and other minority rights and the safeguarding of reasonable British interests." Rebellion intensifies.

August: World Zionist Congress in Zurich decides to ascertain "the precise terms . . . for the proposed establishment of a Jewish state."

September: Arab National Congress, held in Bludan, Syria, and attended by 450 delegates from Arab countries, rejects Royal Commission's partition proposal, and demands termination of Mandate, cessation of Zionist immigration into Palestine, and prohibition of transfer of Arab lands to Zionist ownership.

September 5: Bomb thrown by Irgunists at bus in Jerusalem kills one Palestinian and injures another .*

*Among the reasons for attributing the bombings against Palestinian civilians between 1937 and 1939 to the Irgun, rather than the Haganah or the Stern Gang, are these: (1) Such actions were very much in keeping with Revisionist thinking, (2) Revisionists were arrested by the British in connection with some of the incidents, (3) the Revisionists were totally opposed to partition, (4) the Haganah was cooperating with the British authorities during this period and therefore was unlikely to be engaged in such actions, (5) the Stern Gang had not yet been founded, and (6) the Irgun was openly calling for the colonization of both Palestine and Transjordan by force.

October 1: British dissolve Arab Higher Committee and all Palestinian political organizations. Five Palestinian leaders deported to Seychelles Islands in Indian Ocean; Haj Amin al-Husseini escapes to Lebanon.

November 11: British establish military courts throughout Palestine to counter escalating rebellion.

Bomb thrown in Jerusalem by Irgunists kills one Palestinian and wounds three.

November 14: Three Palestinians killed in Irgunist attack on bus in Jerusalem.

1938

January 4: British decide to send technical commission of inquiry, under chairmanship of Sir John Woodhead, to study feasibility of partition as recommended by Royal Commission.

March 1: Sir Harold Mac Michael succeeds General Sir Arthur Wauchope as high commissioner.

April 17: Two bombs thrown by Irgunists into cafe in Haifa kill one Palestinian and one passing Jew, and wound six Palestinians.

April 27: Technical commission of inquiry (Partition Commission) arrives in Palestine.

June: British officer Orde Wingate organizes Special Night Squads (SNS), composed of British and Haganah personnel, for operations against Palestinian villages.

July 4: Bomb thrown by Irgunists at bus in Jerusalem kills four Palestinians and wounds six.

July 6: Twelve Palestinians die from bomb thrown by Irgunists into Haifa melon market.

Bomb thrown by Irgunists into Haifa marketplace kills 18 Palestinians and 2 Jews.

July 7: Bomb thrown by Irgunists into Jerusalem vegetable market kills one Palestinian and wounds five.

July 8: Bomb planted by Irgunists explodes in Jerusalem bus station, killing 4 Palestinians and wounding 27.

July 15: Bomb planted by Irgunists in Jerusalem (Old City) vegetable market kills 11 Palestinians and injures 28.

July 17: Three Palestinians found murdered in Tel Aviv; police arrest five Zionist Revisionists.

July 25: Bomb planted by Irgunists in Haifa vegetable market kills 45 Palestinians and wounds 45.

July 30: Bomb thrown by Palestinians at bus in Haifa kills one Jew and wounds ten.

August 3: Partition (Woodhead) Commission departs Palestines

August 4: Land mine planted by Palestinians blows up truck near Ramat Hakovesh; six Jews killed and eight injured.

August 18: Bomb thrown by Palestinians along Jaffa-Tel Aviv border kills one Jew and injures four.

August 26: Bomb planted by Irgunists in Jaffa vegetable market kills 23 Palestinians and wounds 30.

October: Arab Parliamentarians' Congress on Palestine, held in Cairo, endorses three demands of Palestinian national movement as stated by Arab National Congress at Bludan, Syria, in September 1937 (see above).

Arab Women's Congress, meeting in Cairo, endorses demands of Palestinian national movement.

October 18: British military commanders take over administrative control from district commissioners throughout country to increase pressure on Palestinian rebellion; new reinforcements brought in from England.

October 19: British troops recapture Old City of Jerusalem from Palestinian rebels.

November 9: Partition (Woodhead) Commission publishes report stating impracticality of Royal Commission's partition proposal. British call for general conference on Palestine to be held in London and attended by Arab, Palestinian, and Zionist representatives.

December: Palestinian leaders previously deported to Seychelles Islands released, but denied return to Palestine.

1939

January 20: Bomb planted by Palestinians in Haifa workshop kills one Jew and injures five.

February 7: London Conference opens at St. James's Palace.

February 26: Bomb planted by Irgunists in Haifa marketplace kills 24 Palestinians and injures 37.

Bomb planted by Irgunists in Jerusalem vegetable market kills four Palestinians and wounds five.

Bomb thrown by Palestinians at truck in Haifa kills two Jews.

March 27: London Conference ends with no agreement reached.

May 17: Malcolm MacDonald, colonial secretary of state, issues White Paper of 1939 embodying British solution to Palestine problem: conditional independence for unitary Palestinian state after interval of ten years, admission of 15,000 Jewish immigrants annually into Palestine for five years, and protection of Palestinian land rights against Zionist acquisition.

May 22-23: British House of Commons votes 268 to 179 to approve White Paper of 1939.

June 2: Bomb planted by Irgunists in Jerusalem bus station kills 5 Palestinians and wounds 19.

June 3: Bomb planted by Irgunists in Jerusalem kills 9 Palestinians and injures 40.

June 19: Bomb planted by Irgunists in Haifa marketplace kills 9 Palestinians and wounds 24.

June 29: Six Irgunist attacks on buses traveling roads near Tel Aviv cause death of 11 Palestinians.

July 3: Bomb thrown by Irgunists into Haifa cafe kills one Palestinian and wounds 35.

August 1: Irgun calls for conquest of Palestine by force.

September 1: Outbreak of World War II.

October: Stern Gang, formed under Avraham Stern by dissident Irgunists, in protest against 1939 White Paper policy, calls for alliance with Axis powers in war against British.