1947

November 10: U.S. and Soviet Union agree to support UNSCOP partition plan, which calls for end to British Mandate by May 1.

November 29: UN General Assembly recommends slight variant of UNSCOP partition plan by 33 to 13 votes with 10 abstentions. Arab representatives walk out of Assembly.



November 30: Haganah calls up all Jews in Palestine aged 17 to 25 to register for military service.

Debember: Haganah emissaries in Czechoslovakia reach agreement with Skoda arms firm on supply of arms.

Haganah launches Plan Gimmel, designed to destabilize Palestinian population and occupy strategic positions in country.

December 2: Palestinians begin three-day strike protesting UN partition resolution. Intercommunal clashes result in death of eight Jews and six Palestinians.

December 5: U.S. State Department announces U.S. embargo on arms shipments to Palestine and the Arab states.

December 6: Irgun attacks Jaffa suburb of Abu Kebir

December 8: Britain recommends to UN termination of Palestine Mandate on 15 May 1948 followed by creation of independent Jewish and Palestinian states two week later.

December 8-16: Arab League, meeting in Cairo, declares partition of Palestine illegal; it decides to put at disposal of Technical Military Committee 10,000 rifles, 3,000 volunteers (including 500 Palestinians), and additional £1,000,000.

December 13: Irgun carries out five raids on Palestinian residential areas in Jerusalem, Jaffa, and village of Tireh (Haifa district), killing 21 Palestinian civilians and wounding 67 others.

December 15: British turn policing of Tel Aviv and Petah Tikva over to Jews, and that of Jaffa over to Palestinians.

December 17: Jewish Agency Executive reports American Jews will be asked for $250 million to meet needs of Jewish Community in Palestine.

December 19: Haganah attacks village of Khisas (Safed district), killing ten Palestinians.

December 20: Haganah attacks village of Qazaza (Ramleh district).

December 28: Irgun announces negotiations for "united front" with Haganah.

December 29: Irgunist grenade attack on Palestinian crowd at Herod's Gate in Jerusalem kills 13 civilians.

December 30-31: Irgunist grenade attack on Palestinian workers in Haifa refinery kills 6 and wounds 42. In reprisal, workers kill 41 Jewish refinery workers. Haganah then attacks village of Balad-al-Sheikh, near Haifa, killing 17 Palestinians and inuring 33.

1948

January: British sell 20 Auster planes to Jewish authorities in Palestine.

British disband 3,200-strong Transjordanian Frontier Force (TJFF), recruited mainly from among Palestinians.

Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini, Palestinian guerrilla commander, secretly returns to Jerusalem after ten-year exile to organize resistance to partition.

January 1: Technical Military Committee of Arab league organizes volunteer force of Arab irregulars caled Arab Liberation Army (ALA), under command of guerrilla leader Fawzi al-Qawukji, to help Palestinians resist partition.

January 3: Estimated 65,000 pounds of TNT destined for Haganah found being loaded aboard Palestine-bound freighter at Jersey City pier.

Haganah attacks village of Abu Shusha (Haifa district).

January 4: Irgun uses car bomb to blow up Grand Serai (government center) in Jaffa, killing 26 Palestinian civilians.

January 5: Haganah blows up Semiramis Hotel in Palestinian residential quarter of Jerusalem, killing 20 civililans.

January 7: Irgun plants explosives at Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem, killing 15 Palestinian civilians and wounding 41.

January 8: First contingent of 330 ALA volunteers arrive in northern Palestine.

January 9: British troops clash with LA volunteers attacking colonies of Dan and Kfar Szold.

January 14: Haganah emissaries conclude Czech Arms Deal. Payments total $12,280,000. Arms purchased include 24,500 rifles, 5,000 light machine guns, 200 medium machine gune, 54 million rounds of ammunition, and 25 Messerschmitts. Before end of Mandate, at least 10,740 rifles, 1,200 machine guns, 26 field guns, and 11 million rounds of ammunition arrive in Palestine. Balance of arms, including 25 Messerschmitts, arrives by end of May.

Palestnians plant bomb in Haifa post office, killing 6 Jews.

January 16: British report to UN estimates 1,974 persons killed of injured in Palestine between November 30 and January 10.

January 19: Haganah attacks villages of Shafa Amr and Tamra (Haifa and Nazareth districts, respectively).

January 20: Palestinian and ALA irregulars attack colony of Yehyam; British troops come to aid of colony.

January 21: Second contingent of 360 ALA volunteers arrives in Palestine.

January 21: Haganah destorys village of Sukreir (Gaza district).

January 28: Third contingent of 400 ALA volunteers arrives in Palestine.

February: Haganah office set up in U.S. under name "Land and Labor" for recruitment of professional military personnel (MAHAL).

February 1: Explosion caused by Palestinians at Palestine Post offices in Jerusalem kills 20 Jewish civilians.

February 6: Attack by ALA contingent on colony of Ein Zeitim broken up by British Troops.

February 10: British troops repulse Palestinian irregulars attacking Jewish Montefiore quarter in Jerusalem.

February 14: Ben-Gurion issues orders to Haganah commander in Jerusalem for conquest of whole city and its suburbs.

Haganah attacks village of Sa'Sa (Safed district) and blows up 14 houses, killing 11 Palestinians.

February 15: Colony of Tirat Zvi in Jordan Valley repulses attack by ALA unit.

February 18: Haganah calls up men and women aged 25 to 35 for military service.

Febrary 19: Three Jews killed when Haganah convoy ambushed near Manara (Tiberias district); British rescue convoy.

February 20: Ship Independence arrives at Tel Aviv with 280 volunteers under oath to Haganah on board, implementing policy of illegal immigration of military personnel.

Haganah shells Arab residential sections of Haifa with mortars, killing 6 and wounding 36 Palestinian civilians.

February 22: Palestinian irregulars blow up buildings on Ben Yehuda Street in Jerusalem, killing 57 Jewish civilians and injuring 100.

February 24: U.S. delegate to UN says role of Security Council regarding Palestine to keep peace, not enforce partition. Syrian delegate proposes appointment of committee to explore possibility of Jewish Agency-Arab Higher Committee agreement.

February 27:  Jewish Agency announces it will establish state even without backing of an international force.

March 2: U.S. delegate tells Security Council U.S. favors implementing partition by "peaceful measures" only.

March 3: Stern Gang destroys office building in Haifa with car bomb, killing 11 and injuring 27 Palestinian civilians.

March 5-7: Fawzi al-Qawukji enters Palestine and assumes command of ALA units in central Palestine.

March 5: Two ALA units, of 360 volunteers each, enter Jaffa to aid resistance.

Haganah attacks and captures village of Biyar Adas (Jaffa district), expelling its inhabitants.

March 6: Haganah declares general mobilization and defends its right to mobilize any Jews of military age resident in Palestine, including American citizens.

March 10: British House of Commons votes to terminate Mandate as of May 15.

Plan Dalet finalized by Haganah,

March 11: Palestinians blow up Jewish Agency headquarters in Jerusalem, killing 12 and injuring 86 Jewish civilians.

March 12: Haganah blows up houses in Jaffa suburb of Abu Kebir.

March 13:  Hananah blows up houses in village of Huseiniyeh (Safed district).

March 16: Palestinian iffegulars block road to Zionist colonies in Negev at village of Bureir (Gaza district).

March 17: Haganah amushes Palestinian convoy en route to Haifa, killing Arab commander of Haifa garrison.

March 18: Palestinian irregulars ambush Haganah convoy at village of Artuf neat Latrun, west of Jerusalem, killing 11 Haganah members.

President Truman secretly receives Chaim Weizmann at White House, and pledges support for declaration of Jewish state on May 15.

March 19: Ben-Gurion declares Jewish state dependent not on UN partition decision, but on Jewish militay preponderance.

U.S. delegate asks Security Council to suspend action on partition plan, and to call special session of General Assembly to work on trusteeship solution.

March 20: Arab League announces Arab acceptance of truce and limited trusteeship for Palestine if Jews agree to same; Jewish Agency rejects Palestine trusteeship.

March 21: Palestinian irregulars explode car bomb on Harbour Street in Haifa, causing 20 Jewish casualties.

March 22: Car bomb left by Jews dressed in British army uniforms explodes on Iraq Street in Haifa, causing 23 Palestinian casualties.

Haganah destroys village of Jebalya, near Jaffa.

March 24: Haganah destroys Bedouin hamlets near Yevniel, west of Tiberias.

Colony of Atarot, north of Jerusalem, attacked by Palestinian irregulars.

March 25: President Truman calls for immediate Arab-Jewish truce and says U.S. will share responsibility for temporary trusteeship.

March 26: Palestine Post Office Department suspends all mail service to Palestine except airmail letters.

March 27: Palestinian and ALA irregulars ambush Haganah convoy en route to Yehyam in western Galilee, killing 45 Haganah members; British troops come to aid of convoy.

Palestinian irregulars ambush Haganah convoy en route to Gush Etzion, near Hebron, killing 70 Haganah members; British troops intervene to arrange surrender of others at Neve Daniel, south of Bethlehem.

March 28: Thirteen half-tracks (out of consignment of 50) reach Haganah from U.S.

March 30: U.S. delegate presents resolution to Security Council calling for truce to be arranged with Jewish Agency and Arab Higher Committee representatives.

March 31: Haganah completes demolition of Abu Kebir, village near Jaffa.

Zionist assailants blow up train near colony of Benjamina, killing 24 Palestinians and injuring 61.

Palestinian irregulars ambush Haganah convoy at village of Hulda, east of Ramleh.

April 1: Security Council votes to call special session of General Assembly, and agrees to U.S. truce proposal of March 30.

Ship Nora, carrying 4,500 rifles, 200 light machine gune, 5 millions rounds of ammunition, arrives in Haifa from Split, Yugoslavia. In tandem, 200 rifles, 40 machine guns and more ammunition arrive by place at secret Haganah airfield. Both consignments constitute first installment of Czech Arms Deal (see January 14, May 12-14).

April 2: Haganah attacks and captures Palestinian village of Castel, west of Jerusalem, expelling its inhabitants.

April 4: Haganah launches Plan Dalet.

Qawukji attacks Zionist colony of Mishmar Haemek, southeast of Haifa.

April 5: Palestinian and Zionist leaders object to U.S. proposals presented to Security Council for temporary trusteeship agreement.

Haganah launces Operation Nachshon (first phase of Plan Dalet); villages of Hulda and Deir Muheisin, east of Ramleh, attacked and captured.

April 5-6: Qawukji agrees to 24-hour cease-fire at Mishmar Haemek at request of colony's inhabitants and British; Haganah breaks cease-fire.

Palestinian counterattack at Hulda and Deir Muheisin fails.

April 8: Haganah starts offensive against Palestinian town of Tiberias; Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini killed in counterattack at Castel.

     
April 9: Haganah retakes Castel.

Haganah attacks and occupies villages of Ji'ara, Kafrin, Abu Zureiq, and Abu Shusha, southeast of Haifa.

Irgun and Stern Gang massacre some 245 inhabitants in village of Deir Yassin, western suburb of Jerusalem three miles from Castel.



April 10: In wake of Deir Yassin massacre and failure of Palestinian and ALA irregulars, special Palestine Committee set up by Arab League meets to discuss security situation in Palestine.

Zionist colony of Kfar Darom in Negev attacked by unit of irregulars organized by Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.

April 11: Haganah destroys village of Kolonia, near Castel, and occupies Deir Yassin.

April 12: General Zionist Council resolves to establish independent Jewish state in Palestine on May 16.

Haganah, Irgun, and Stern Gang negotiate agreement for joint operations.

Zionist colonists from Gush Etzion ambush traffic on Hebron-Jerusalem road. Transjordanian Arab Legion units, operating in Palestine under British command, shell Gush Etzion in retaliation.

April 13-20: At conclusion of Operation Nachshon, Haganah launches Operation Harel; villages of Biddu, Beit Surik, Saris, and Suba (Jerusalem district) attacked and destroyed.

April 13: Qawukji withdraws from Mishmar Haemek; Haganah attacks and occupies neighboring villages of Naghnaghiya, Mansi, and Lajjun.

Palestinian irregulars ambush Haganah-escorted convoy en route to Hebrew University in East Jerusalem; 39 Jews and 6 Palestinians killed.

April 14: Security Council resolution calls for military and political truce. Haganah attacks Palestinian Druze villages of Hosha and Khirbet Qasir, near Haifa.

April 16: Counterattack by Druze irregulars forces Haganah to withdraw from Hosha.

British evacuate town of Safed.

April 18: In wake of sudden British withdrawal from Tiberias, Haganah attacks and captures town; Palestinian inhabitants flee.

Haganah starts offensive against town of Safed.

April 20: U.S. submits trusteeship plan for Palestine to UN.

Palestinians block coastal road to Jewish quarters of Jerusalem; fierce battle ensues to intercept Haganah convoy near village of Deir Ayyub, west of Jerusalem.

April 21: British suddenly evacuate residential quarters of Haifa.

April 22: Haganah launches Operation Misparayim to attack and occupy Haifa.

April 23: Villages of Beit Iksa and Shu'fat, north of Jerusalem, attacked and captured by Haganah, but Haganah repulsed at Nabi Sam'uil.

Haganah captures Haifa; Palestinian inhabitants flee.

April 24: Irgun starts offensive against Jaffa with heavy mortar shelling followed by infantry attack.

April 25-31: Launching Operation Chametz to conquer Jaffa, Haganah attacks suburban villages of Tell Rish, Yazur, and Salameh.

April 25: Twenty-five artillery pieces on board Resurrectio reach Tel Aviv.

April 26: Launching Operation Jevussi for conquest of whole of Jerusalem, Haganah attacks Palestinian residential quarter of Sheikh Jarrah in East Jerusalem, cutting off city from north; British forces intervene against Haganah.

Haganah's attempt at cutting off Jerusalem from Jericho fails.

April 27: Haganah announces coordination of plans with Irgun.

April 28-30: Palestinian ALA unit under Michel Issa succeeds in fighting its way into Jaffa in order to break Haganah siege.

April 28: British intervene to stop joint Irgun-Haganah attack against Jaffa.

Haganah launches Operation Matate to expel Palestinians of eastern Galilee (from Rosh Pina to Jordan River). 

Haganah launches Operation Yiftach to expel Palestinians from rest of eastern and central Galilee, and to capture Safed.

Haganah attacks Palestinian town of Samakh, south of Lake Tiberias; inhabitants flee city.

Haganah attacks and occupies villages of Ein Zeitun and Biriya, north of Safed.

April 29: Haganah captures Jaffa suburbs of Salameh, Yazur, and Jebalya, cutting off Jaffa from hinterland; remaining residents flee city by sea, but ALA relief units and other volunteers maintain resistance.

Continuing Operation Jevussi, Haganah attacks and occupies Palestinian residential quarter of Katamon in West Jerusalem.

April 30: All Palestinian quarters in West Jerusalem occupied by Haganah, and residents driven out.

First meeting of chiefs of staff of Arab armies to review situation in Palestine held in Amman.

May 1: Lebanon and Syria decide to send troops to Palestine at end of Mandate on May 15.

May 2: Iraq dispatches troops to town of Mafraq, in Transjordan, en route to Palestine after May 15.

Three planeloads of arms for Haganah arrive from France.

May 3: Between 175,000 and 200,000 Palestinian refugees reported to have fled east from Zionist-occupied areas.

Jewish colonists from Gush Etzion, south of Jerusalem, ambush traffic on road to city.

May 4: Unit of Transjordanian Arab Legion, operating in Palestine under British command, shells Gush Etzion in retaliation for ambush.

Irgun units occupy village of Abbasiyah, near Jaffa.

Britain announces it is studying transitional trusteeship regime for Palestine to take effect at end of Mandate.

May 5: ALA unit under Michel Issa withdraws from Jaffa, ending city's resistance.

May 6: Five artillery pieces reach Haganah from France.

Haganah attacks and occupies village of Shejara and neighboring villages around Mt. Tabor; inhabitants driven out.

Haganah offensive to occupy Safed intensifies.

May 8-9: Haganah launches Operation Maccabi for conquest of remaining villages between Ramleh and Latrun; village of Beit Mahsir, west of Latrun, attacked.

May 10-12: Arab chiefs of staff meet in Damascus.

May 10: Haganah enters Jaffa.

Kfar Darom, colony in Negev, again attacked by Egyptian irregular units.

May 11: Continuing Operation Maccabi, Haganah occupies village of Beit Muheisir, west of Latrun.

Haganah launches Operation Gideon to occupy villages in Huleh basin, upper eastern Galilee.

May 11-12: Haganah captures Safed and surrounding villages.

May 12-14: Second and third airlifts of arms from Communist-controlled Czechoslovakia arrive in Palestine for Haganah, delivering 5,000 rifles, 1,200 machine guns, and 6 million rounds of ammunition.

May 12: State of emergency declared in all Arab countries, and able-bodied Palestinian men barred entry to them.

Egyptian Parliament decides to send troops to Palestine at end of Mandate.

Unit of Transjordanian Arab Legion presses attack against Gush Etzion.

At Latrun, Palestinian irregulars again block road from coast to Jewish quarters of Jerusalem.

Haganah launches Operation Barak to occupy villages of Bureir, Huleikat, and Kawkabah, as well as neighboring villages (Gaza district); operation intended to "open the way" to the Negev.

Continuing Operation Gideon, Haganah occupies villages of Ulam, Hadatha, and Ma'dhar (Tiberias district, lower Galilee); "area now empty of Arabs," according to Haganah sources.

Haganah attacks and occupies town of Beisan, south of Lake Tiberias.

May 13: Chaim Weizmann sends President Truman letter requesting U.S. recognition of Jewish state upon its proclamation.

UN appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as mediator to resolve conflict in Palestine.

Fifty artillery pieces and 24 heavy mortars arrive for Haganah at Haifa on board Borea.

Irgun-Haganah agreement signed for conquest of whole of Jerusalem.

Unit of Transjordanian Arab Legion and Palestinian irregulars capture Kfar Etzion, one of four colonies comprising Gush Etzion (gush = "bloc").

Jaffa leaders sign document of surrender to Haganah.

Haganah attacks and occupies villages of Aqir, Katra, Bashit, Beit Daras, and Barqah (Ramleh district).

Haganah ordered to occupy all Palestinian villages in coastal plain near Tulkarm.

Village of Tireh, near town of Qalqilyah, repulses Haganah attack.

Haganah attacks Palestinian hamlets on slopes of Mt. Carmel, occupies village of Kafr Saba, and starts abortive offensive to capture Qalqilyah.

May 14: Haganah launches Operation Klashon to occupy strategic areas in Jerusalem evacuated by British and Palestinian residential quarters outside Old City.

Haganah launches Operation Schfifon for capture of Old City of Jerusalem.

Haganah launches Operation Ben Ami for conquest of upper western Galilee; villages of Sumeiriya, Zeeb, and Bassa (Acre district) attacked and occupied.

Villages of Kafr Qar'a (Haifa district), Qubab (Lydda district), and Abu Shusha (Jaffa district) captured by Haganah.

Three remaining colonies of Gush Etzion (Revadim, Ein Tsurim, and Massuor Yitzhak), south of Jerusalem, surrender to unit of Transjordanian Arab Legion.

British high commissioner leaves residence in Jerusalem en route to Britain. State of Israel proclaimed in Tel Aviv at 4:00 P.M.

May 15: British Mandate ends.

Declaration of state of Israel comes into effect.

President Truman recognizes state of Israel.

First Egyptian regular troops cross border into Palestine.

Egyptian troops attack colonies of Kfar Darom and Nirim in Negev.

Three Transjordanian Arab Legion brigades cross Jordan River into Palestine.

Lebanese regulars retake Lebanese villages of Malkiya and Qadas (on Lebanese border), attacked and captured earlier by Haganah.

Zionist colonies of Atarot and Neve Yaqov, north of Jerusalem, as well as colony near Jericho, evacuated by Haganah.

May 16: Syrian column advances toward Palestinian town of Samakh, south of Lake Tiberias, attacked and occupied earlier by Haganah.

Continuing Operation Ben Ami, Haganah attacks city of Acre.

Arab Legion units reach northern suburbs of Jerusalem.



May 17: Haganah continues Operation Schfifon for conquest of Old City of Jerusalem.

Haganah captures Acre.



May 18: Syrian troops retake Samakh and capture Zionist colonies of Shaar Hagolan and Masada.

Arab Legion units reach Latrun and consolidate blockade of coastal road to Jewish quarters in Jerusalem.

May 19: Egyptian troops attack colony of Yad Mordechai in Negev.

Haganah breaks into Old City of Jerusalem.

Arab Legion comes to rescue of Old City.