Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine, Gaza, 1945. In the front row, left to right, are Hashim al-Jayyusi (see 350
), Rushdi al-Shawwa (Gaza), Omar Bitar (Jaffa), Shaikh Mustafa al-Khairi (Ramleh), and Suleiman Tuqan (Nablus). In the center, second row, is Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari (Hebron) and, to his right, Hanna Qawwas (Bethlehem). There were eighteen Palestinian municipal councils, two Jewish councils, and four mixed councils under the Mandate.