#'s 149-157 Today the Jaffa orange is the agricultural product that is most closely associated with Israeli production. Yet Palestinian expertise had already developed the Jaffa orange before Zionist colonization of Palestine got under way. In 1886 the American consul in Jerusalem, Henry Gillman, writing to Assistant Secretary of State J. D. Porter, called attention to the excellent quality of the Jaffa orange and the superior grafting techniques of Palestinian citrus farmers: "I am particular in giving the details of this simple method of propagating this valuable fruit," he reported to Washington, "as I believe it might be adopted with advantage in Florida." It was not until the end of the Mandate that Jewish production managed to catch up with Palestinian production levels. Even then, however, Palestinian citrus production remained slightly ahead, both quantitatively and qualitatively, as this table (in which the areas under cultivation were graded) indicates:

Palestinian-owned:

Class 1: 100,055

Class 2: 17,401

Class 3: 5,502

Total Dunams: 122,958

Jewish-owned:

Class 1: 93,640

Class 2: 13,150

Class 3: 7,562

Total Dunams: 114,352

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