Jemal Pasha, a member of the "Young Turks" triumvirate, which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I, with his staff in Jerusalem. Jemal Pasha became governor general and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army in Syria-Palestine in 1914. After the initial stirrings of the Arab Revolt against the Turks, and on the side of Britain and the Allies, Jemal Pasha initiated a policy of brutal repression against Arab nationalists in Syria and Palestine. On 21 August 1915 and 6 May 1916, he executed thirty-two leading Syrian and Palestinian intellectuals and professionals accused of being in favor of the Arab Revolt. The Arab Revolt aspired to the independence and political federation of the Arab countries, including Palestine, goals which the Arabs had been led to believe Britain and the Allies supported.