Members of the Istiqlal (Independence) Pan-Arab Party, founded in 1932. Identifying British "imperialism" as the major foe because of its sponsorship of Zionism, the Istiqlal Party urged the Palestinian leadership to concentrate its efforts on resisting and terminating the British occupation (see 102
). Standing first left is Ahmad Shukairi from Acre (see 69
), who became chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964. Seated second left is Rashid al-Haj Ibrahim from Haifa (see 268
). Seated center is Muhammad Izzat Darwazah, author of a classic history of the Arab national movement, and a principal organizer of the Great Palestine Rebellion of 1936-39 (see 242ff.).