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leaders and diplomacy

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi, elected from Jerusalem to the first Ottoman Parliament of 1877, where he was an active member of the opposition; mayor of Jerusalem in 1899.

"In the Name of God, Let Palestine Be Left Alone" (2)

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi, elected from Jerusalem to the first Ottoman Parliament of 1877, where he was an active member of the opposition; mayor of Jerusalem in 1899.

"In the Name of God, Let Palestine Be Left Alone" (3)

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi, elected from Jerusalem to the first Ottoman Parliament of 1877, where he was an active member of the opposition; mayor of Jerusalem in 1899.

The Inauguration of a Hospital

Shaikh Badr, a western suburb of Jerusalem near the village of Deir Yassin (see 411).

The Kaiser in Jerusalem

Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany at the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock (see 1), Jerusalem, 1898. The Kaiser's visit was meant to signal to other European powers Germany's interest in the Arab East, and to strengthen German-Ottoman ties.

The Young Turks Revolution (1)

The Grand Serai (see 164, 393), housing local government offices, Jaffa, July 1908: A large Palestinian crowd gathers to celebrate the revolution in Constantinople popularly known by the Arabs as al-Hurriyyah (Ara

Jemal Pasha

Jemal Pasha, a member of the "Young Turks" triumvirate, which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I, with his staff in Jerusalem. Jemal Pasha became governor general and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army in Syria-Palestine in 1914.

Jemal Pasha Reviews His Troops

Jemal Pasha reviewing his troops in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, ca. 1917.

Musa Janini

Musa Janini (1858-1938), a village elder from Ain Karem, Jerusalem district. Note the sheepskin coat turned inward.

Ruhi al-Khalidi

Ruhi al-Khalidi (1861-1913), elected from Jerusalem to the Ottoman Parliament in 1908 and 1912, and vice-president of the Parliament in 1911. Earlier in his career he had lectured at the Sorbonne and served as Ottoman consul general in Bordeaux.

Faidi al-Alami

Faidi al-Alami, mayor of Jerusalem between 1906 and 1909, and Jerusalem representative in the Ottoman Parliament from 1914 to 1918. Alami was also a scholar, who published a concordance of the Koran.

Arif Pasha Dajani

Arif Pasha Dajani (died 1930), mayor of Jerusalem during World War I. Immediately after the war he headed the Muslim-Christian Society in Jerusalem.

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, the elder statesman of Palestinian politics in the 1920s and early 1930s. A graduate of Maktab Mulkiye (Civil Service School) in Constantinople, he held important administrative positions in the Ottoman Empire.
He was the father of Abd aI-Qadir al-Husseini, who became a leader of the Palestinian resistance during the Great Rebellion of 1936-39 and again in the 1948 War (see 253, 396,

Palestinian Women Outside High Commissioner's Jerusalem Residence

A delegation of Palestinian women outside the high commissioner’s residence in Jerusalem. The delegation protested the harshness of British measures against the Palestinians during the disturbances. The women wearing hats are Christian. Second left is Mrs.

Motorcade for Womens' Delegation

The motorcade of the women's delegation on its way to the high commissioner's residence.

The Shaw Commission of Inquiry: "disappointment ... and fear"

Members of the Shaw Commission of Inquiry, Jerusalem, October 1929. The Shaw Commission was sent by London to investigate the causes of the 1929 disturbances. Seated center is Sir Walter Shaw, chairman of the commission.

Mourning on Balfour Day (1)

Balfour Day, the Old City of Jerusalem, 2 November 1929. Palestinians and many Arabs commemorated the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) with mourning, as indicated by the black flags.

Mourning on Balfour Day (2)

Balfour Day, the Old City of Jerusalem, 2 November 1929. Palestinians and many Arabs commemorated the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) with mourning, as indicated by the black flags.

Funeral of Muhammad Ali

The funeral procession of Muhammad Ali, one of the foremost Indian Muslim religious leaders and scholars, escorted by Boy Scouts, Jerusalem, 23 January 1931.

Funeral of King Hussein of Hijaz

The funeral of King Hussein of Hijaz, Jerusalem, 4 June 1931.

A Palestinian conference, 1930

A Palestinian conference called on the eve of the departure of the Fourth Palestinian Delegation to London; Jerusalem, March 1930 (see 84). The First Delegation to London in 1921 was followed by two others in 1922.
Raghib al-Nashashibi, mayor of Jerusalem (see 196, 242, 352); and Alfred Roch, prominent Catholic businessman from Jaffa (see

Fourth Palestinian Delegation in London

Members of the Fourth Palestinian Delegation in London, April 1930. The women in the back row are Christian Palestinian secretaries accompanying the delegation. The three men in the same row are Palestinian correspondents in London for Arabic newspapers in Palestine.

The Rise of Political Activism

Young political activists from Nablus just released from prison (ca. 1930) call on their lawyer, Adil Zu'aiter (seated), to thank him for his efforts on their behalf.

Pan-Islamic Conference, 1931

The Pan-Islamic Conference, Jerusalem, December 1931.

Tunisian and Turkish delegates

Tunisian and Turkish delegates to the Pan-Islamic Conference with Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini (see 78). First left is the Tunisian scholar Abd al-Aziz al-Tha'alibi; the figure in the center is the Turkish philosopher Rida Tawfiq.

Istiqlal (Independence) Party

Members of the Istiqlal (Independence) Pan-Arab Party, founded in 1932.

King Faisal I of Iraq Funeral

The funeral cortege of King Faisal I of Iraq passing through Haifa, 1933. The king had died on a visit to Europe, and his body was en route to Iraq.

The Palestine Arab Case

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

The Arab Higher Committee Members

The Arab Higher Committee, comprising representatives of all Palestinian parties, was formed on 25 April 1936. One of its first acts was to call for a general strike and civil disobedience "to continue ... until ...

Chronology, 1919-1936

1919

January: Paris Peace Conference decides conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule.

Arrival of Sir Herbert Samuel

Jaffa, June 1920: Sir Herbert Samuel (in white peaked helmet), a British Zionist politician appointed as first high commissioner, about to set foot on Palestinian soil to inaugurate the British civilian administration.

Third Palestinian National Congress

The Third Palestinian National Congress, Haifa, 14 December 1920. Delegates to the congress represented the main cities and districts of Palestine.
Third right, last row, is the future Palestinian leader Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 88, 100, 202,

Fourth Palestinian National Congress

The Fourth Palestinian National Congress, Jerusalem, 25 May 1921. (See 87, 89).

First Palestinian Delegation to UK

The First Palestinian Delegation to the United Kingdom in working session in London, 1921. Two of the six-man delegation (first and fourth left) were Christian Palestinians.

First Delegation in Geneva

The First Delegation in Geneva to attend the Syrian- Palestinian Conference, timed to coincide with the League of Nations' meeting to discuss the proposed Mandatory system.

Memorandum to Winston Churchill (1)

" ... the people of Palestine will not be satisfied with promises that some control of their own destinies will be given to them in the future, . . . The Palestine people will never admit the right of any outside organization to dispossess them of their country, ...

Memorandum to Winston Churchill (2)

" ... the people of Palestine will not be satisfied with promises that some control of their own destinies will be given to them in the future, . . . The Palestine people will never admit the right of any outside organization to dispossess them of their country, ...

Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa

The Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa, October 1925 (see 68, 82-83, 87).

The Arab Higher Committee Members

The Arab Higher Committee, comprising representatives of all Palestinian parties, was formed on 25 April 1936. One of its first acts was to call for a general strike and civil disobedience "to continue ... until ...

Oath of Allegiance

Residents of Abu Ghosh, a village west of Jerusalem (see 118), taking the oath of allegiance to the Arab Higher Committee, April 1936.

Revolt of the Civil Servants (1)

"Authority implies justice all round, and when justice is denied ....

Revolt of the Civil Servants (2)

"Authority implies justice all round, and when justice is denied ....

Revolt of the Civil Servants (3)

"Authority implies justice all round, and when justice is denied ....

Revolt of the Civil Servants (4)

"Authority implies justice all round, and when justice is denied ....

Revolt of the Civil Servants (5)

"Authority implies justice all round, and when justice is denied ....

Revolt of the Civil Servants (6)

"Authority implies justice all round, and when justice is denied ....

Revolt of the Civil Servants (7)

"Authority implies justice all round, and when justice is denied ....

Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini

Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini (center) with aides.

Abd al-Halim al-Julani

Second right is Abd al-Halim al-Julani, guerrilla commander for the Hebron district. The banner is the Palestinian national flag.

Hamad Zawata

Hamad Zawata, guerrilla commander for the Nablus district.

Volunteers from Arab Countries

On 25 August 1936 Fawzi al-Qawukji (third right) infiltrated into Palestine at the head of some 150 volunteers from neighboring Arab countries. Lebanese by birth, Qawukji was something of a Garibaldi figure in Arab popular perception.

Qawukji Organizes Palestinian Guerillas

Qawukji organized the Palestinian guerrillas of central Palestine, and led them through several fierce engagements with British forces in which the latter used planes, tanks, and heavy artillery. Here he is seen taking the salute as a guerrilla column marches past, ca. September 1936.

Party for Seychelles exiles

In December 1938 the Seychelles exiles (see 268 - 269) were released, but for several years they were not allowed to return to Palestine.

British Anxiety and the 1939 London Conference

The British government, fearful of the impact of its repressive Palestine policies on British interests throughout the Middle East as World War II approached, and impressed by the intensity of Palestinian resistance, called for a conference to be held in London in February 1939 to discuss the Palest

The London Conference and the White Paper of 1939

The London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939: a meeting between the British and Arab delegates.
On either side of the Palestinian delegation are the other Arab delegations. Facing the Palestinians are the British, with Sir Neville Chamberlain, prime minister, presiding.
After the London Conference, the British government issued a White Paper (statement of policy) in which it promised to protect Palestinian land rights in considerable areas of the country against Zionist land acquisition, and to solicit Palestinian "acquiescence" to Zionist mass immigration, but onl

The Stern Gang Assassinates Lord Moyne

Lord Walter Moyne (1880-1944), close friend of Winston Churchill, British colonial secretary in 1941-42, and subsequently minister resident in the Middle East.

Arab League Warnings

A meeting of the Political Committee of the Arab League in Bludan, Syria, June 1946. The committee expressed concern about the rising tide of Zionist terrorism in Palestine, and protested increasing American support of Zionism.

Faidi aI-AIami and family

Faidi aI-AIami with his wife and son Musa, Jerusalem, 1919 (see 67). Musa received a law degree from Cambridge University.

Hashim al-Jayyusi

Hashim al-Jayyusi (1901-81), mayor of Tulkarm from 1939 to 1948 (see 376). Subsequently, he served six times as Jordanian minister of finance and was acting prime minister and deputy speaker of the Senate in Jordan.

George Antonius

After graduating from Cambridge University, George Antonius (1891-1942) began his civil service career in Palestine first in the Education Department and then in the Secretariat (the British Mandatory Executive).

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine, Gaza, 1945. In the front row, left to right, are Hashim al-Jayyusi (see 350), Rushdi al-Shawwa (Gaza), Omar Bitar (Jaffa), Shaikh Mustafa al-Khairi (Ramleh), and Suleiman Tuqan (Nablus).