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politics and war

The Young Turks Revolution (1)

The Grand Serai (see 164, 393), housing local government offices, Jaffa, July 1908: A large Palestinian crowd gathers to celebrate the revolution in Constantinople popularly known by the Arabs as al-Hurriyyah (Ara

Jemal Pasha

Jemal Pasha, a member of the "Young Turks" triumvirate, which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I, with his staff in Jerusalem. Jemal Pasha became governor general and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army in Syria-Palestine in 1914.

Jemal Pasha Reviews His Troops

Jemal Pasha reviewing his troops in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, ca. 1917.

Allenby's Proclamation

Allenby's proclamation: "...lest any of you should be alarmed .... "

Fifth Australian Light Horse Brigade

Troops of the Fifth Australian Light Horse Brigade, under Allenby's command, enter Nablus to establish Allied control, 21 September 1918.

Fourth Regiment Chasseurs d'Afrique

Men of one of the French contingents under AIlenby's command, the Fourth Regiment Chasseurs d'Afrique, enter the village of Anabta east of Tulkarm in central Palestine, late September 1918.

Indian Troops

And Indian troops (the Jodhpore and Mysore Lancers, Fifteenth Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade) enter Haifa, 23 September 1918.

Khalil Jawhariyyah

Khalil Jawhariyyah was the brother of Wasif Jawhariyyah, a noted Christian Orthodox connoisseur, and the owner of one of the rich collections of photographs widely used in this album. Khalil is seen here in the uniform of a private in the Ottoman army during World War I.

Khalil Raad

Khalil Raad, a famous Palestinian Protestant photographer from Jerusalem, and the owner of another of the collections used in this album. He studied photography in Basel, and appears here in his Ottoman army uniform during World War I.

The Arab Awakening

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

Zionist Colonies Map (1)

Zionist colonies in Palestine at the beginning of the British Mandate, 1920.

Chronology, 1919-1936

1919

January: Paris Peace Conference decides conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule.

Arrival of Sir Herbert Samuel

Jaffa, June 1920: Sir Herbert Samuel (in white peaked helmet), a British Zionist politician appointed as first high commissioner, about to set foot on Palestinian soil to inaugurate the British civilian administration.

Third Palestinian National Congress

The Third Palestinian National Congress, Haifa, 14 December 1920. Delegates to the congress represented the main cities and districts of Palestine.
Third right, last row, is the future Palestinian leader Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 88, 100, 202,

Fourth Palestinian National Congress

The Fourth Palestinian National Congress, Jerusalem, 25 May 1921. (See 87, 89).

First Palestinian Delegation to UK

The First Palestinian Delegation to the United Kingdom in working session in London, 1921. Two of the six-man delegation (first and fourth left) were Christian Palestinians.

First Delegation in Geneva

The First Delegation in Geneva to attend the Syrian- Palestinian Conference, timed to coincide with the League of Nations' meeting to discuss the proposed Mandatory system.

Memorandum to Winston Churchill (1)

" ... the people of Palestine will not be satisfied with promises that some control of their own destinies will be given to them in the future, . . . The Palestine people will never admit the right of any outside organization to dispossess them of their country, ...

Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa

The Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa, October 1925 (see 68, 82-83, 87).

Welcoming Guerillas

Villagers welcoming mounted guerrillas, summer 1936.

Sabotage

A train derailed by guerrillas, summer 1936.

Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini

Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini (center) with aides.

Abd al-Halim al-Julani

Second right is Abd al-Halim al-Julani, guerrilla commander for the Hebron district. The banner is the Palestinian national flag.

Hamad Zawata

Hamad Zawata, guerrilla commander for the Nablus district.

Palestine and Oil

The oil pipeline to Haifa from Iraq sabotaged by guerrillas, summer 1936. This was probably one of the earliest instances of the impingement of the Palestine problem on the flow of oil to the West.

Laying Siege to Jaffa's Old City

The British cordon off the Old City of Jaffa before the demolition starts.

Volunteers from Arab Countries

On 25 August 1936 Fawzi al-Qawukji (third right) infiltrated into Palestine at the head of some 150 volunteers from neighboring Arab countries. Lebanese by birth, Qawukji was something of a Garibaldi figure in Arab popular perception.

Qawukji Organizes Palestinian Guerillas

Qawukji organized the Palestinian guerrillas of central Palestine, and led them through several fierce engagements with British forces in which the latter used planes, tanks, and heavy artillery. Here he is seen taking the salute as a guerrilla column marches past, ca. September 1936.

The Peel Commission and Partition

The members of the Palestine Royal Commission arrived in Palestine in November 1936. Third left is Lord Peel, chairman of the commission.

British Reinforcements (1)

Royal Air Force armored cars (266) and an army base just outside the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (267).

British Reinforcements (2)

Royal Air Force armored cars (266) and an army base just outside the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (267).

Smashing the Palestinian Political Infrastructure

On 1 October 1937 the Arab Higher Committee (see 242) was dissolved. Four of its members, Dr.

Fuad Saba's Letter to his Children

A letter sent by Fuad Saba (see 344) to his children in Jerusalem.

Martial Law

On 11 November 1937 military courts were established for the trial of offenses including the carrying of arms, which was now made punishable by death. Between 1937 and 1939, the British executed by hanging 112 Palestinians under the new law.

Lewis

Note the sole light machine gun (Lewis) on the ground.

Abd aI-Rahim al-Haj Muhammad

One of the most prominent guerrilla leaders of the rebellion, Abd aI-Rahim al-Haj Muhammad (center foreground), who died in action against British troops on 28 March 1938.

Solidarity

Collecting contributions for afflicted Palestinian families, Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem. Note the Hotel Fast on the left.

More British Reinforcements

Heavy British reinforcements were sent to fight the Palestinians in 1938-39. Some of the leading British officers of World War II held command in Palestine at this time, including Generals J. G. Dill and A. P. Wavell, then Brigadier B. L. Montgomery, and ''Bomber'' Harris.

Arming One Side and Disarming the Other

Fire practice under British supervision at the Jewish settlement of Ein Geb, 1938. The British authorities systematically disarmed the Palestinian population while building up Jewish military strength.

Special Night Squads

The SNS (Special Night Squads) composed of British and Jewish personnel, were organized by the British in 1938-39 to assault Palestinian villages on hit-and-run raids.

British Police Search Palestinians

British police and army patrols search Palestinians in the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1936.

Mass Arrests

Making collective arrests outside Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, September 1938. The British held 816 Palestinians in detention camps in 1937, and 2,463 in 1938. In 1939 they detained 5,679 Palestinians out of a total Palestinian population of ca. one million.

Brutal British Tactics

A favorite British punitive measure was blowing up the houses of "suspects" and those of their relatives. Shown here are the ruins of the house of a "suspect" in Jenin, September 1938.

Laying Siege to Jerusalem's Arab College

Another favorite punitive measure was the harassment and occupation of Palestinian educational institutions by British troops.

Assault on the Old City

An advance detachment of British troops moving to the assault just before the recapture of the Old City.

Party for Seychelles exiles

In December 1938 the Seychelles exiles (see 268 - 269) were released, but for several years they were not allowed to return to Palestine.

British Anxiety and the 1939 London Conference

The British government, fearful of the impact of its repressive Palestine policies on British interests throughout the Middle East as World War II approached, and impressed by the intensity of Palestinian resistance, called for a conference to be held in London in February 1939 to discuss the Palest

The London Conference and the White Paper of 1939

The London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939: a meeting between the British and Arab delegates.
On either side of the Palestinian delegation are the other Arab delegations. Facing the Palestinians are the British, with Sir Neville Chamberlain, prime minister, presiding.
After the London Conference, the British government issued a White Paper (statement of policy) in which it promised to protect Palestinian land rights in considerable areas of the country against Zionist land acquisition, and to solicit Palestinian "acquiescence" to Zionist mass immigration, but onl

Palestinian Volunteers Against the Axis

In spite of their bitterness at the brutality of the British suppression of their rebellion, about nine thousand Palestinians volunteered during World War II for service in the British forces against the Axis powers. Some of these volunteers are seen here on parade in Nablus in May 1941.

The Stern Gang Assassinates Lord Moyne

Lord Walter Moyne (1880-1944), close friend of Winston Churchill, British colonial secretary in 1941-42, and subsequently minister resident in the Middle East.

The Irgun and Transjordan

A poster of the Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization), "Irgun" for short, which began its terrorist campaign against the Palestinians in September 1937, and was the parent body of the Stem Gang.

Menachem Begin and Vladimir Jabotinsky

Menachem Begin, former prime minister of Israel, addressing a rally soon after the establishment of Israel.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (1)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (2)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (3)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Illegal Immigration (1)

At the end of World War II, the Zionist leadership decided to undermine the British regime in Palestine as a prelude to the establishment of a Jewish stat

Illegal Immigration (2)

At the end of World War II, the Zionist leadership decided to undermine the British regime in Palestine as a prelude to the establishment of a Jewish state.

The King David Hotel (1)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

The King David Hotel (2)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

Arab League Warnings

A meeting of the Political Committee of the Arab League in Bludan, Syria, June 1946. The committee expressed concern about the rising tide of Zionist terrorism in Palestine, and protested increasing American support of Zionism.

Haifa Railroad Station

The railroad station at Haifa blown up by Zionist terrorists, fall 1946.

Hostage Taking by the Irgun

Hostage taking and sometimes the murder of hostages were two terrorist practices introduced by the Irgun under Menachem Begin. This photograph shows the bodies of two British army sergeants, Clifford Martin (left) and Mervyn Paice.

The Haganah Starts its Offensive

The farmhouse of the Abu Laban family, prosperous Palestinian orange growers, near Petah Tikva.

Reverend Salih Saba and family

Reverend Salih Saba and family, Jerusalem, ca. 1922. Fuad Saba (standing first left) was the first Palestinian licensed auditor to practice under the British Mandate. By 1948 the F. Saba Company had branches in Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Egypt.

Transjordanian Frontier Force

Troopers of the TJFF (Transjordanian Frontier Force), recruited mostly from among Palestinians, prepare to leave for London to attend victory celebrations at the end of World War II.

Introduction: Civil War and the Destruction of the Palestinian Community: November 1947 - May 1948

THE Palestine problem was now rapidly approaching its catastrophic climax. On 29 November 1947 the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution recommending the partition of Palestine into a Jewish state, a Palestinian state, and a special international regime (corpus separatum) for Jerusalem and its environs; an economic union would be set up between the Jewish and Palestinian states. The Palestinians and other Arabs were as stunned as the Zionists and their sympathizers were jubilant. The very reactions of each side belied the claim that partition was a compromise solution.

The Importation of a Military Industry

As early as 1945, David Ben-Gurion (then chairman of the Jewish Agency Executive) arranged on a visit to the United States for the purchase of entire military plants, which were being sold ostensibly as scrap at the end of the war.

Cairo Street Rejects Palestine Partition

On 29 November 1947 a resolution recommending the partition of Palestine into a Jewish state and a Palestinian state was virtually forced through the United Nations General Assembly by the United States. It was received with shock and consternation by the entire Arab and Muslim worlds.

UN Partition Plan Facilitates Civil War

The UN partition recommendation (a resolution by the UN General Assembly is not binding) precipitated a series of Jewish-Palestinian clashes. These clashes escalated into total civil war during the remaining months of the British Mandate, which ended on 15 May 1948.

Zionist Terrorism

A bomb thrown from a passing taxi at a bus in the Palestinian residential quarter outside Herod's Gate, Jerusalem, on 29 December 1947 killed seventeen Palestinian civilians.

Zionism's Child Casualties

Palestinian policeman carrying a child victim of the incident recorded in 391.

Semiramis in Ruins

Ruins of the Semiramis Hotel, located in the Palestinian residential quarter of Bak'a in West Jerusalem.

Take Cover!

Palestinian civilians (and British constables) taking cover from sniper fire, Jerusalem, February 1948.

'Palestine Post' Explosion

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: an explosion at the offices of the Palestine Post in Jerusalem killed twenty Jewish civilians on 1 February 1948.

Explosion along Ben Yehuda Street

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: fifty-seven Jewish civilians died in an explosion on Ben Yehuda Street in Jerusalem on 22 February 1948.

Attack on Jewish Agency Headquarters

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: twelve Jewish civilians were killed at the Jewish Agency headquarters in Jerusalem on 11 March 1948.

Fawzi al-Qawukji

Both sides received volunteers from outside the country. The Zionists had two organizations for the purpose of recruiting such volunteers: GAHAL and MAHAL. GAHAL trained some twenty thousand volunteers at various European bases and transported them to Palestine.

Arab Liberation Army (ALA) Members

Both sides received volunteers from outside the country. The Zionists had two organizations for the purpose of recruiting such volunteers: GAHAL and MAHAL. GAHAL trained some twenty thousand volunteers at various European bases and transported them to Palestine.

The Battle for the Roads (1)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

The Battle for the Roads (2)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

The Battle for the Roads (3)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

Hebron Ambush

In 408, Palestinian irregulars deploy to set up an ambush, Hebron district, spring 1948.

Castel Counterattack

On the night of April 7-8, under the command of Abd aI-Qadir al-Husseini (see 253, 396), Palestinian irregulars counteratt

Castel Recaptured

On April 8 the Palestinians recaptured Castel, but Abd aI-Qadir was killed while leading his men. This is a photograph of his funeral on April 9 at the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.

Deir Yassin

While the Haganah was battling to recapture Castel on 9 April 1948, eighty men of the Irgun, on orders from Menachem Begin, attacked the tiny village of Deir Yassin (shown here) in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, about three miles east of Castel and next to the Jewish neighborhood of Givat Sha

Altogether nearly two hundred Palestinian villages were attacked and conquered by Zionist forces before the end of the Mandate on 15 May 1948. Many of the inhabitants suffered injury or death, and all were expelled or fled in fear from their homes.

Irgun Terrorism

Irgunists moving through holes blasted in Palestinian houses.

Fleeing Jaffa

With no proper military organization or civil defense, the morale of the Palestinian civilian population broke under the twin offensives by the Haganah and the Irgun. Here women and children salvage some belongings as they flee the city.

Into the Sea

Palestinians driven into the sea at Jaffa Harbor, late April 1948. With the land routes cut off by the Haganah, tens of thousands of the citizens of Jaffa and neighboring villages fled by boat to Gaza and Egypt; scores were drowned.

Acre's Siege

Haganah forces laying siege to Acre, ca. 16 May 1948. Acre also lay outside the Jewish state as envisioned in the UN partition recommendation.

Acre's Fall

Civilian inhabitants of Acre being herded into prison after the fall of the town, 17 May 1948.

Left in Ruins

Ruins of the village of Sumeiriya, just north of Acre, typifying the fate of nearly four hundred Palestinian villages by the end of 1948.

Haganah in Jerusalem

A Haganah military column arrives in Jerusalem from Tel Aviv, April 1948, in accordance with Plan Dalet (see 409, 410, 411).

Night Fighting

Night fighting in Jerusalem, early May 1948.

Scenes of Destruction (1)

Scenes of devastation in the Palestinian residential quarters of East Jerusalem, April to early May 1948:  Ruins of a house in the Sa'ad Sa'id quarter.

Scenes of Destruction (2)

Scenes of devastation in the Palestinian residential quarters of East Jerusalem, April to early May 1948:  Ruins of the Musrara quarter.

Scenes of Destruction (3)

Scenes of devastation in the Palestinian residential quarters of East Jerusalem, April to early May 1948: ruins of the commercial center outside Jaffa Gate.

Count Bernadotte

On 13 May 1948 Count Folke Bernadotte, member of the Swedish royal family and International Red Cross representative in Europe during the later stages of World War II, was appointed by the United Nations as a mediator to seek a settlement of the Palestine conflict.

Nahr al-Barid

A typical Palestinian refugee camp at Nahr al-Barid in northern Lebanon, winter 1948.