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Jemal Pasha

Jemal Pasha, a member of the "Young Turks" triumvirate, which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I, with his staff in Jerusalem. Jemal Pasha became governor general and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army in Syria-Palestine in 1914.

Jemal Pasha Reviews His Troops

Jemal Pasha reviewing his troops in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, ca. 1917.

Overlooking the Village of Askar

Horseman overlooking the village of Askar east of Nablus, central Palestine.

Looking Toward Marj Ibn Amer

Standing figure looking toward Marj Ibn Amer (the Plain of Jezreel).

Group of Villagers

A group of villagers in Bethlehem, south of Jerusalem.

Water Pipe and Coffee

Bethlehem women at home drinking coffee and smoking a water pipe, or "hubble-bubble."

Two Young Girls from Bethlehem

A Bonfils portrait of two young girls from Bethlehem. Each region in Palestine has its distinctive embroidery patterns and style for adorning women's clothing. The headdress often has coins sewn into it.

Musa Janini

Musa Janini (1858-1938), a village elder from Ain Karem, Jerusalem district. Note the sheepskin coat turned inward.

St. George's British Anglican School for Boys

St. George's British Anglican school for boys, founded in Jerusalem in 1899, was one of many schools established in the second half of the nineteenth century by European and American missionaries. Many of the students at St.

St. George's Soccer Team

St. George's soccer team. One of its proudest feats was to beat the American University of Beirut's team on the latter's home ground in 1909.

Izzat Tannous

The St. George's player on the left is Izzat Tannous, a Protestant Palestinian who became a medical doctor and a representative of the Palestine Arab Higher Committee at the United Nations General Assembly.

Ruhi al-Khalidi

Ruhi al-Khalidi (1861-1913), elected from Jerusalem to the Ottoman Parliament in 1908 and 1912, and vice-president of the Parliament in 1911. Earlier in his career he had lectured at the Sorbonne and served as Ottoman consul general in Bordeaux.

Faidi al-Alami

Faidi al-Alami, mayor of Jerusalem between 1906 and 1909, and Jerusalem representative in the Ottoman Parliament from 1914 to 1918. Alami was also a scholar, who published a concordance of the Koran.

Arif Pasha Dajani

Arif Pasha Dajani (died 1930), mayor of Jerusalem during World War I. Immediately after the war he headed the Muslim-Christian Society in Jerusalem.

Shaikh As'ad al-Shukairi

Shaikh As'ad al-Shukairi, elected to the Ottoman Parliament from Acre in 1908 and 1912. He was trained in Islamic religious law, having graduated from Azhar University, Cairo.

Nicola Abdo

Nicola Abdo, an administrator in the Orthodox Patriarchate, Jerusalem.

Khalil Jawhariyyah

Khalil Jawhariyyah was the brother of Wasif Jawhariyyah, a noted Christian Orthodox connoisseur, and the owner of one of the rich collections of photographs widely used in this album. Khalil is seen here in the uniform of a private in the Ottoman army during World War I.

Khalil Raad

Khalil Raad, a famous Palestinian Protestant photographer from Jerusalem, and the owner of another of the collections used in this album. He studied photography in Basel, and appears here in his Ottoman army uniform during World War I.

Sa'id al-Shawwa

Sa'id al-Shawwa, a leading Gaza notable and grain exporter. After the British occupation, he became mayor of Gaza and a member of the Supreme Muslim Council - the highest body in charge of Muslim community affairs.

Theodore Baramki

Theodore Baramki, a Christian Orthodox Jerusalem judge, in formal Ottoman dress.

Saba Ya'qub Sa'id

Saba Ya'qub Sa'id, a Christian Orthodox lawyer, and legal counselor to the Orthodox Patriarchate in Palestine.

George Humsi

George Humsi, a Christian Orthodox lawyer and author, Jerusalem.

Nazif al-Khalidi

Nazif al-Khalidi, a Jerusalem engineer. He was one of the principal aides to the German chief engineer Meissner, who supervised the building of the Hijaz Railway, begun in 1900; this railroad linked Damascus and Medina.

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, the elder statesman of Palestinian politics in the 1920s and early 1930s. A graduate of Maktab Mulkiye (Civil Service School) in Constantinople, he held important administrative positions in the Ottoman Empire.
He was the father of Abd aI-Qadir al-Husseini, who became a leader of the Palestinian resistance during the Great Rebellion of 1936-39 and again in the 1948 War (see 253, 396,

Emergency Relief Committee

The Emergency Relief Committee (seen here in session at its headquarters in Jerusalem, 1929) was formed during the 1929 disturbances to aid afflicted Palestinian families.

Fourth Palestinian Delegation in London

Members of the Fourth Palestinian Delegation in London, April 1930. The women in the back row are Christian Palestinian secretaries accompanying the delegation. The three men in the same row are Palestinian correspondents in London for Arabic newspapers in Palestine.

The Rise of Political Activism

Young political activists from Nablus just released from prison (ca. 1930) call on their lawyer, Adil Zu'aiter (seated), to thank him for his efforts on their behalf.

Police Brutality

The bearded profile of a fallen man in the upper center of the photograph is that of the venerable Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini (see 78), who had been leading the demonstration shown above (see 109-

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini's Funeral

The funeral of Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, 27 March 1934. Al-Husseini died at the age of eighty-one. The trauma he had suffered at the hands of the British five months earlier in Jaffa (see 111) hastened his death.

First Palestinian Guerilla Operation

Shaikh Izz aI-Din al-Qassam, patriot, social reformer, and religious teacher from Haifa. His work and preaching were conducted mainly among the poorer classes.

Mount of Olives

Aerial view of the Mount of Olives, looking toward the Dead Sea.

Hills of Bethlehem

The hills of Bethlehem. Note the traditional headdress.

Hills of Kolonia

Terraced hills seen from Kolonia, a village on the road to Jaffa about eight kilometers west of Jerusalem.

Casting Nets

Fishermen of the Sea of Galilee.

Extended Family

An extended family in the village of Beit Sahur, near Bethlehem.

Looking Out to Sea

Jaffa, looking out to sea. Until 1936, before the development of the Haifa and Tel Aviv harbors, Jaffa was the main seaport of Palestine.

Home in Jaffa

A house interior, Jaffa, ca. 1935.

Tiberias (1)

Tiberias, looking south, ca. 1935. The mosque in the foreground, known as the Upper Mosque, was built at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

Tiberias (2)

Tiberias, looking north toward Mount Hermon, ca. 1935.

Taji Family Residence

The residence of the Taji family, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, ca. 1934.

Looking Out Over Jerusalem

Looking northeast at a Palestinian residential quarter just outside Bab al-Zahirah, Jerusalem.

Gaza's Grand Mosque

The Grand Mosque in Gaza, originally a twelfth-century A.D. structure.

Khalil Raad's Shop

Khalil Raad's shop, Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem (see 72, 124, 125 , 126 , 127 ,

Wedding in Haifa

A Christian wedding, Haifa, 1930. The bridegroom is Hanna Asfour, a Catholic Palestinian lawyer (see 250, 270); the bride, Emily Abu Fadil.

Wedding in Wadi Hunayn

A Muslim wedding, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1935. The bridegroom is Nazif al-Khairi, a district officer; the bride, Samiyah Taji.

Tea Party

Mayor of Jerusalem Raghib al-Nashashibi (see 100, 242, 352), standing center, gives a tea party at his home in honor of Shaikh Abd al-Hayy al-Kitt

Ali al-Kassar visits Jerusalem

Ali al-Kassar (front center), an Egyptian actor, visits friends in Jerusalem, 1934. Seated first right is Fawzi al-Ghosein from Ramleh, a graduate in law from Cambridge University, England.

Masquerading as Indian Maharajas and Maharanis

Masquerading as Indian maharajas and maharanis at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Roch, Jaffa, 1924.

Haj Amin al-Husseini

Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 82), mufti of Jerusalem, flanked by Christian religious dignitaries, ca. 1930.

Palestinian Christian Orthodox Conference

A conference of Palestinian Christian Orthodox priests, Ramallah, September 1932.

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi (holding a staff) visits the Haram aI-Sharif (see 1) in Jerusalem, ca. 1923. He was a leader of the Libyan Senussi tariqah, a religious brotherhood.

"The Least Worthy of You Are the Least Learned" (1)

Staff and alumni of the Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, ca. 1919 (see 61); a typical private school. The founder, Khalil Sakakini, is seated first left.

"The Least Worthy of You are the Least Learned" (2)

The Jerusalem Girls' College, ca. 1920; founded by a British Anglican mission. The staff are in the last two rows. The majority of the student body was Palestinian, both Christian and Muslim.

The Staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School

The staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. Seated center is Salim Katul, author of a series of textbooks in Arabic on the natural sciences.

Government Secondary Boys' School's Top Soccer Team

The top soccer team at the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. The men in the fezzes are members of the staff. Salim Katul (see 211) is standing first left.

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts with camping gear (transport included!), Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1924. The boy third left, first row, is carrying a bag with the Arabic word for "first aid" on it.

Government Secondary Boys' School Carpentry Class

Carpentry class, 1924. The inscription over the door reads, "The least worthy of you are the least learned."

Irfan (Knowledge) School

Students, including Wolf Cubs, and staff of the Irfan (Knowledge) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1922.

Najah School Staff and Graduating Class

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1918. It became the nucleus of the present Najah University on the West Bank.

Najah School

The student body, including Scout troops, and staff of the Najah School, Nablus, 1924.

Wataniyyah (National) School

The student body and staff of the private Wataniyyah (National) School, Jerusalem, 1925. Seated center is the indefatigable founder and headmaster, Khalil Sakakini (see 61, 209).

Salahiyyah School

The staff of the private Salahiyyah School (so called after Saladin), Nablus, 1926.

The All-Palestine Boy Scout Jamboree

Bir Salim, near Ramleh, 1926. Seated center, third row, is Humphrey Bowman, British director of the Department of Education.

Ladies in a Kindergarten

"Sample" of the kindergarten class at a German Protestant mission school, Schmidt Girls' College, Jerusalem, 1926 (see 241). The young ladies in the picture are all from the same family, the Tajis of Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh.

Young Men's Muslim Association

The founding members of the YMMA - the Young Men's Muslim Association - modeled on the YMCA; Acre, 1928.

The Acre Sports Club

Members of the Sports Club, Acre, 1928. Third right, second row, is Ahmad Shukairi (see 69, 105), later to become chairman of the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization).

Graduates of British Universities

Palestinian students at British universities celebrating the wedding of one of their members, Izz aI-Din al-Shawwa, London, 1928.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (1)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its old premises, Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, 1930.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (2)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its new premises on Jabal al-Mukabbir, "the Mount of the Glorifier," south of Jerusalem, 1938. (This was the site from which the caliph Omar, on his way to Jerusalem to accept its capitulation from the Byzantines in A.D.

Moroccan Students in Nablus

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1932.

Palestinian Teachers in Iraq

Young Palestinian teachers pursuing higher studies in Iraq, 1934. Seated center is Akram Zu'aiter, then lecturer at the Teachers' Training College, Baghdad. This photograph illustrates again the cultural interaction between Palestine and the Arab world.

The Arab College in the 1940s (2)

Brushing up their Latin. The lecturer, George Hourani, graduated from Oxford University and wrote several books including Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times (Princeton University Press, 1951) and Islamic Rationalism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971).

The Arab Higher Committee Members

The Arab Higher Committee, comprising representatives of all Palestinian parties, was formed on 25 April 1936. One of its first acts was to call for a general strike and civil disobedience "to continue ... until ...

The Arab Higher Committee Members

The Arab Higher Committee, comprising representatives of all Palestinian parties, was formed on 25 April 1936. One of its first acts was to call for a general strike and civil disobedience "to continue ... until ...


A Christian Orthodox priest is held alongside Muslim religious dignitaries in a detention camp. Cross-legged on the floor is Michel Mitri, the Christian Orthodox head of the Jaffa Labour Union, also detained.

Hanna Asfour

First left is Hanna Asfour, Greek Catholic lawyer and legal adviser to the Arab Labour Society in Haifa (see 194, 270). Traditional dress was worn by urban detainees as a gesture of defiance.

Hamad Zawata

Hamad Zawata, guerrilla commander for the Nablus district.

Volunteers from Arab Countries

On 25 August 1936 Fawzi al-Qawukji (third right) infiltrated into Palestine at the head of some 150 volunteers from neighboring Arab countries. Lebanese by birth, Qawukji was something of a Garibaldi figure in Arab popular perception.

The Peel Commission and Partition

The members of the Palestine Royal Commission arrived in Palestine in November 1936. Third left is Lord Peel, chairman of the commission.

Smashing the Palestinian Political Infrastructure

On 1 October 1937 the Arab Higher Committee (see 242) was dissolved. Four of its members, Dr.

Abd aI-Rahim al-Haj Muhammad

One of the most prominent guerrilla leaders of the rebellion, Abd aI-Rahim al-Haj Muhammad (center foreground), who died in action against British troops on 28 March 1938.

Faidi aI-AIami and family

Faidi aI-AIami with his wife and son Musa, Jerusalem, 1919 (see 67). Musa received a law degree from Cambridge University.

Reverend Salih Saba and family

Reverend Salih Saba and family, Jerusalem, ca. 1922. Fuad Saba (standing first left) was the first Palestinian licensed auditor to practice under the British Mandate. By 1948 the F. Saba Company had branches in Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Egypt.


Schoolmasters, Jaffa, ca. 1923. Seated is Thabit al-Khalidi, author of a chemistry textbook, who became Jordanian ambassador to the United Nations and later to Iran.

Family Portrait

A prominent Muslim family, Jaffa, mid-I920s.

Guard of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem

Guard of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem in the traditional costume of the qawwas ("consular guard").

Dr. Daoud Bulos and family

Dr. Daoud Bulos, a Protestant medical doctor, with his wife Adla and son Nasib (later a lawyer), Acre, 1923.

Akram Zu'aiter and Ahmad Shukairi

The two young men in the front row of this photograph are left, Akram Zu'aiter (see 233, 235) and right, Ahmad Shukairi (see 69,

Hashim al-Jayyusi

Hashim al-Jayyusi (1901-81), mayor of Tulkarm from 1939 to 1948 (see 376). Subsequently, he served six times as Jordanian minister of finance and was acting prime minister and deputy speaker of the Senate in Jordan.

Villagers from Deir Yassin

Villagers from Deir Yassin, 1927. Building contractor Haj Ahmad al-As'ad with his son Muhammad, his wife (resting her hand on his shoulder), and a relative. (See 411)

Raghib al-Nashashibi

Raghib al-Nashashibi (see 100, 196, 242), an outstanding public figure under the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate, and the Jordanian administration.

Mrs. Tawfiq Bisisu with her children

Mrs. Tawfiq Bisisu with her children, Gaza, 1933. Proudly holding a magazine is Mu'in, later a poet and playwright closely associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

Ibrahim Tuqan

Palestine's poet laureate, Ibrahim Tuqan, a graduate of the American University of Beirut; NabIus, 1934. From 1936 to 1941 Tuqan was in charge of the Arabic section of the Palestine Broadcasting Station.

Khalil Baydas

Khalil Baydas from Nazareth (1874-1949), Russian scholar and pioneer of the modern Palestinian novel. As early as 1898, he had translated some of the works of Tolstoy and Pushkin into Arabic. Khalil was the father of Yusuf Baydas, a Palestinian banker.

Adil Zu'aiter

Adil Zu'aiter (see 102) with his two sons, Wa'il (on his lap) and Umar, Nablus, 1935. Umar became an artillery officer in Kuwait.

Hasan Sidqi al-Dajani

Hasan Sidqi al-Dajani, a Jerusalem journalist, lawyer, and politician. As legal counsel to the Palestinian Union of Drivers, he organized the strike by the transport sector in 1936 at the beginning of the Great Rebellion (see 242ff.).

Muna Asfour

Muna Asfour, later married to architect Bahij Saba (now an American citizen), Haifa, 1937.

A Day at the Sea

Charlotte Jallad (center) from Jaffa, with friends on a trip to the Dead Sea, 1937.

Asma Tubi and Safiyyah Riyahi

Palestinian author Asma Tubi from Nazareth (on arm of chair); and Safiyyah Riyahi from Jaffa (seated), who became a lecturer in Arabic at Beirut College for Women; 1938.

George Antonius

After graduating from Cambridge University, George Antonius (1891-1942) began his civil service career in Palestine first in the Education Department and then in the Secretariat (the British Mandatory Executive).

Government Girls' School

Girl Guides of the Government Girls' School in Nazareth, 1940.

An-Najah English Debating Society

The English Debating Society of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1942. Isam Abbasi (standing second from right) became a poet and novelist as well as literary contributor to al-Ittihad, a newspaper in Haifa.

Ruth Raad

Ruth Raad, daughter of photographer Khalil Raad, in the traditional costume of Ramallah, ca. 1943.

Moghannam Moghannam

Moghannam Moghannam, an American-educated Protestant lawyer from Ramallah in the "oriental" room of his house, ca. 1944.

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine, Gaza, 1945. In the front row, left to right, are Hashim al-Jayyusi (see 350), Rushdi al-Shawwa (Gaza), Omar Bitar (Jaffa), Shaikh Mustafa al-Khairi (Ramleh), and Suleiman Tuqan (Nablus).

Time for a bath

Aliyyah al-Khairi bathing her son Fawwaz (now an airline pilot), Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1945.

Leaders of the Arab Protestant Community of Palestine

Leaders of the Arab Protestant community of Palestine, 1946. Reverend Butrus Nasir from Bir Zeit is seated third from left.

Wajidah Taji

Wajidah Taji, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1946. Wajidah became principal aide to Musa al-Alami (see 343) at the Boys' Farm in Jericho, run by the Arab Development Society.

Mayor Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari

Muslim dignitaries conferring in the courtyard of the Ibrahimi (Abraham) Mosque, Hebron, 1947 (see 180). The mayor of Hebron, Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari, is on the right.

Dr. Nimr Tuqan

Dr. Nimr Tuqan, a pathologist and brilliant mimic from Nablus, with nurses at the Haifa Government Hospital, 1947. The brother of Ibrahim Tuqan (see 355), he became chief pathologist at the American University Hospital in Beirut.

Women's Teachers' Training College

A singing recital at the Women's Teachers' Training College, Jerusalem, spring 1947.

Beit Jala Wedding

Wedding portrait of Dr. Jabra al-A'raj and his bride, Lydia, Beit Jala, ca. 1947.

Anton Attallah

Anton Attallah, judge in the district courts of Jerusalem and Haifa (1939-43), deputy mayor of Jerusalem (1944-46), and minister of foreign affairs for Jordan (1963-67).