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social life

The Inauguration of a Hospital

Shaikh Badr, a western suburb of Jerusalem near the village of Deir Yassin (see 411).

The Young Turks Revolution (2)

Jerusalem, 1908: A Palestinian rally, with local officials, celebrating al-Hurriyyah.

Jerusalem Railroad Station

The Jerusalem railroad station, 1917: Jemal Pasha, Ottoman governor general in Syria-Palestine, and General Erich von Falkenhayn, chief of the German Military Mission to the Orient.

Group of Villagers

A group of villagers in Bethlehem, south of Jerusalem.

Water Pipe and Coffee

Bethlehem women at home drinking coffee and smoking a water pipe, or "hubble-bubble."

Two Young Girls from Bethlehem

A Bonfils portrait of two young girls from Bethlehem. Each region in Palestine has its distinctive embroidery patterns and style for adorning women's clothing. The headdress often has coins sewn into it.

Musa Janini

Musa Janini (1858-1938), a village elder from Ain Karem, Jerusalem district. Note the sheepskin coat turned inward.

Peeking Over Jaffa Gate

Scenes at Jaffa Gate, the Old City of Jerusalem: (40) a Bonfils photograph taken just inside the walls looking out.

Outside Jaffa Gate

Scenes at Jaffa Gate, the Old City of Jerusalem: the view from outside the walls.

Al-Aqsa Mosque

The Mosque of al-Aqsa, Jerusalem (see 1), built by the caliph al-Walid ibn-Abd aI-Malik (A.D. 705-715).

Dome of the Rock from al-Aqsa

The Dome of the Rock as seen from the al-Aqsa Mosque. In the foreground is al-Kas (the Cup), a fountain for ritual ablutions. (Bonfils)

Russian Pilgrims at the Jordan River

Russian pilgrims at the Jordan River. Following the development of steamship navigation, the number of Christian pilgrims from Europe greatly increased.

Grotto, Church of the Nativity

Grotto of the Nativity, Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem (see 2). Note the Ottoman gendarme standing guard to prevent intersectarian Christian conflict.

Christmas Day

Pilgrims entering the town of Bethlehem on Christmas Day. (Bonfils)

Praying at the Wailing Wall

Jewish women praying at the Wailing Wall, Jerusalem. Throughout the centuries of Arab and Muslim rule in Palestine, Jews had free access to the Wailing Wall. Access became an issue only after the 1948 War and the resultant Palestinian diaspora.

Easter Procession

Christian Orthodox procession on Easter Day (note the lighted candles) from the Greek Patriarchate to the Holy Sepulcher in the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1910.

Soccer Match

A soccer match in the Palestinian quarter of Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), outside the Old City walls to the northeast - perhaps the earliest photograph of a sports event in Jerusalem. Note the Muslim tomb in the foreground, extreme right.

Christian Orthodox Girls' School

Staff and students of the Christian Orthodox Girls' School in Beit Jala (near Bethlehem), 1906. Note that the students are wearing their traditional costumes.

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, Jerusalem, 1909; named after the Ottoman Constitution promulgated in 1908 (see 3, 6-

Khalidi Library

A comer of the Khalidi Library, Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1914. The library was established in 1900 through an endowment provided by the mother of Haj Raghib al-Khalidi (seated second from right).

Emergency Relief Committee

The Emergency Relief Committee (seen here in session at its headquarters in Jerusalem, 1929) was formed during the 1929 disturbances to aid afflicted Palestinian families.

Jericho's Orchards

Orchards in Jericho. Many wealthy Palestinians from Jerusalem had winter houses in Jericho.

Hills of Bethlehem

The hills of Bethlehem. Note the traditional headdress.

Extended Family

An extended family in the village of Beit Sahur, near Bethlehem.

Jaffa's Central Square

Central Square, Jaffa, soon after the inauguration of the British Mandate. The building with pillars, on the right, is the Grand Serai (see 6, 393).

Nuzhah Quarter from Jaffa

Jaffa, looking toward the new Palestinian residential Nuzhah quarter, ca. 1935. Note the contrast in means of transportation with the previous photograph.

Home in Jaffa

A house interior, Jaffa, ca. 1935.

Snowed In

The Old City of Jerusalem under snow, looking toward the Mount of Olives.

Jazzar Mosque

The inner courtyard of the Jazzar Mosque at Acre, built in 1781 by Ahmad al-Jazzar, who in 1799 checked the advance of Napoleon through Palestine with the help of a British naval squadron commanded by Sir Sydney Smith.

The Via Dolorosa

The Via Dolorosa, Fifth Station of the Cross, in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, Jerusalem.

Pottery (1)

The ancient crafts of the potter.

Pottery (2)

The ancient crafts of the potter.

Wedding in Haifa

A Christian wedding, Haifa, 1930. The bridegroom is Hanna Asfour, a Catholic Palestinian lawyer (see 250, 270); the bride, Emily Abu Fadil.

Wedding in Wadi Hunayn

A Muslim wedding, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1935. The bridegroom is Nazif al-Khairi, a district officer; the bride, Samiyah Taji.

Tea Party

Mayor of Jerusalem Raghib al-Nashashibi (see 100, 242, 352), standing center, gives a tea party at his home in honor of Shaikh Abd al-Hayy al-Kitt

The Arab Medical Conference

The Arab Medical Conference (YMCA, Jerusalem, 1933), attended by physicians from various Arab countries.

Ali al-Kassar visits Jerusalem

Ali al-Kassar (front center), an Egyptian actor, visits friends in Jerusalem, 1934. Seated first right is Fawzi al-Ghosein from Ramleh, a graduate in law from Cambridge University, England.

Palestine Broadcasting Station

Palestinian musicians and singers at the Palestine Broadcasting Station, Jerusalem, 1936.

Masquerading as Indian Maharajas and Maharanis

Masquerading as Indian maharajas and maharanis at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Roch, Jaffa, 1924.

Haj Amin al-Husseini

Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 82), mufti of Jerusalem, flanked by Christian religious dignitaries, ca. 1930.

Celebrating Passover

Samaritan Jews (in the foreground) celebrating their Passover, Nablus, early 1930s. The Samaritans were a tiny Jewish sect numbering less than two hundred, most of whom lived in Nablus. They used Arabic for everyday speech, but a dialect of Aramaic in their liturgy.

Palestinian Christian Orthodox Conference

A conference of Palestinian Christian Orthodox priests, Ramallah, September 1932.

"The Least Worthy of You Are the Least Learned" (1)

Staff and alumni of the Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, ca. 1919 (see 61); a typical private school. The founder, Khalil Sakakini, is seated first left.

"The Least Worthy of You are the Least Learned" (2)

The Jerusalem Girls' College, ca. 1920; founded by a British Anglican mission. The staff are in the last two rows. The majority of the student body was Palestinian, both Christian and Muslim.

The Staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School

The staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. Seated center is Salim Katul, author of a series of textbooks in Arabic on the natural sciences.

Government Secondary Boys' School's Top Soccer Team

The top soccer team at the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. The men in the fezzes are members of the staff. Salim Katul (see 211) is standing first left.

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts with camping gear (transport included!), Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1924. The boy third left, first row, is carrying a bag with the Arabic word for "first aid" on it.

Government Secondary Boys' School Carpentry Class

Carpentry class, 1924. The inscription over the door reads, "The least worthy of you are the least learned."

Irfan (Knowledge) School

Students, including Wolf Cubs, and staff of the Irfan (Knowledge) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1922.

Najah School Staff and Graduating Class

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1918. It became the nucleus of the present Najah University on the West Bank.

Najah School

The student body, including Scout troops, and staff of the Najah School, Nablus, 1924.

Wataniyyah (National) School

The student body and staff of the private Wataniyyah (National) School, Jerusalem, 1925. Seated center is the indefatigable founder and headmaster, Khalil Sakakini (see 61, 209).

Salahiyyah School

The staff of the private Salahiyyah School (so called after Saladin), Nablus, 1926.

The All-Palestine Boy Scout Jamboree

Bir Salim, near Ramleh, 1926. Seated center, third row, is Humphrey Bowman, British director of the Department of Education.

Ladies in a Kindergarten

"Sample" of the kindergarten class at a German Protestant mission school, Schmidt Girls' College, Jerusalem, 1926 (see 241). The young ladies in the picture are all from the same family, the Tajis of Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh.

Young Men's Muslim Association

The founding members of the YMMA - the Young Men's Muslim Association - modeled on the YMCA; Acre, 1928.

The Acre Sports Club

Members of the Sports Club, Acre, 1928. Third right, second row, is Ahmad Shukairi (see 69, 105), later to become chairman of the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization).

Graduates of British Universities

Palestinian students at British universities celebrating the wedding of one of their members, Izz aI-Din al-Shawwa, London, 1928.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (1)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its old premises, Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, 1930.

...And Its Base: The Village School (2)

At the other end of the spectrum were the village schools. The two schools pictured here (228 and 229) are typical of some 420 village schools that existed in Palestine by the end of the Mandate.

College des Freres

The staff and graduating class of the College des Freres in Jerusalem, 1934. This secondary school was founded by the Franciscan Order in 1875.

Palestinian Teachers in Iraq

Young Palestinian teachers pursuing higher studies in Iraq, 1934. Seated center is Akram Zu'aiter, then lecturer at the Teachers' Training College, Baghdad. This photograph illustrates again the cultural interaction between Palestine and the Arab world.

Music in Jaffa (1)

Students of the National Christian Orthodox School, Jaffa, 1938. The school was founded in 1921 by the Christian Orthodox Welfare Society.

Music in Jaffa (2)

School band of the National Christian Orthodox School, Jaffa, 1938. The school was founded in 1921 by the Christian Orthodox Welfare Society.

Schmidt Girls' College Again

The older ladies at the school, Jerusalem, 1947 (see 222).

Bedouin Love: Law and Legend

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

Studies in Palestinian Customs and Folklore

241a-241p: A melange of sixteen books by Palestinians, published before 1946.

Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa

The Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa, October 1925 (see 68, 82-83, 87).

Guerilla Stamps

A guerrilla stamp, 1938, showing the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock.

Back in Control

Back in control, the British allow the inhabitants of the Old City to line up for water.

The Stout Sea Walls of Acre

The stout sea walls of Acre, originally constructed in the ninth century A.D.

Jerusalem street scene

Jerusalem street scene outside Jaffa Gate, early 1940s.

Jerusalem's Arab Fair

The Arab Fair when it was first held in Jerusalem, 1933.


Schoolmasters, Jaffa, ca. 1923. Seated is Thabit al-Khalidi, author of a chemistry textbook, who became Jordanian ambassador to the United Nations and later to Iran.

Muna Asfour

Muna Asfour, later married to architect Bahij Saba (now an American citizen), Haifa, 1937.

A Day at the Sea

Charlotte Jallad (center) from Jaffa, with friends on a trip to the Dead Sea, 1937.

Palestinian Students at the American University in Beirut

A predominantly Palestinian group of political science students at the American University of Beirut, 1937.

Asma Tubi and Safiyyah Riyahi

Palestinian author Asma Tubi from Nazareth (on arm of chair); and Safiyyah Riyahi from Jaffa (seated), who became a lecturer in Arabic at Beirut College for Women; 1938.

Gather around

Except three gentlemen (the second, third, and fourth from the left in the first standing row), all the others are Christian Palestinians representing a cross-section of ages and professions.

The occasion for this gathering is unknown; the location, Nablus; the date, ca. 1925.

Shepherds and a Schoolmaster

Shepherds and a schoolmaster, with their respective flocks, cross paths outside the Church of All Nations, Gethsemane.

Palestine Broadcasting Station's "Oriental band"

The "oriental band" (takht) of the Palestine Broadcasting Station entertaining guests at a private party, Jerusalem, 1940.

Government Girls' School

Girl Guides of the Government Girls' School in Nazareth, 1940.

Dancing in the gymnasium

Dancing in the gymnasium, Jerusalem Girls' College, early 1940s.

The Merchant of Venice in Ramallah

Performers in The Merchant of Venice at the Friends' Boys School, Ramallah, ca. 1941. Sa'id Abu Hamdeh, later a professional photographer, is first right.

Ruth Raad

Ruth Raad, daughter of photographer Khalil Raad, in the traditional costume of Ramallah, ca. 1943.

Moghannam Moghannam

Moghannam Moghannam, an American-educated Protestant lawyer from Ramallah in the "oriental" room of his house, ca. 1944.

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine, Gaza, 1945. In the front row, left to right, are Hashim al-Jayyusi (see 350), Rushdi al-Shawwa (Gaza), Omar Bitar (Jaffa), Shaikh Mustafa al-Khairi (Ramleh), and Suleiman Tuqan (Nablus).

Leaders of the Arab Protestant Community of Palestine

Leaders of the Arab Protestant community of Palestine, 1946. Reverend Butrus Nasir from Bir Zeit is seated third from left.

Mayor Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari

Muslim dignitaries conferring in the courtyard of the Ibrahimi (Abraham) Mosque, Hebron, 1947 (see 180). The mayor of Hebron, Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari, is on the right.

George Shibr

The board of directors and some members of the Arab Architects' and Engineers' Association of Jerusalem at the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, 1947.

Dr. Nimr Tuqan

Dr. Nimr Tuqan, a pathologist and brilliant mimic from Nablus, with nurses at the Haifa Government Hospital, 1947. The brother of Ibrahim Tuqan (see 355), he became chief pathologist at the American University Hospital in Beirut.

Women's Teachers' Training College

A singing recital at the Women's Teachers' Training College, Jerusalem, spring 1947.

Schmidt Girls' College

Boarders at Schmidt Girls' College in the orange orchards of Jericho, 1947.

Beit Jala Wedding

Wedding portrait of Dr. Jabra al-A'raj and his bride, Lydia, Beit Jala, ca. 1947.

Anton Attallah

Anton Attallah, judge in the district courts of Jerusalem and Haifa (1939-43), deputy mayor of Jerusalem (1944-46), and minister of foreign affairs for Jordan (1963-67).