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Jerusalem

Jerusalem: Allah's Choice

"The choice of Allah of all his lands is Jerusalem . . . the dew which descends upon Jerusalem is a remedy from every sickness, because it is from the gardens of Paradise.”

This vast compound some thirty-four acres in area, known as the Haram aI-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary), is situated in the Old City of Jerusalem, one of the three holiest cities of Islam (the other two being Mecca and Medina).

Jesus: Allah's Word


"The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary ... His word which He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him ... "

The Star of Bethlehem, Church of the Nativity. Islam is deeply imbued with Judeo-Christian beliefs and traditions. The prophet Muhammad is seen by Muslims as the last and "seal" (khatim) of a long line of earlier prophets.

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi, elected from Jerusalem to the first Ottoman Parliament of 1877, where he was an active member of the opposition; mayor of Jerusalem in 1899.

"In the Name of God, Let Palestine Be Left Alone" (2)

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi, elected from Jerusalem to the first Ottoman Parliament of 1877, where he was an active member of the opposition; mayor of Jerusalem in 1899.

"In the Name of God, Let Palestine Be Left Alone" (3)

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi, elected from Jerusalem to the first Ottoman Parliament of 1877, where he was an active member of the opposition; mayor of Jerusalem in 1899.

The Inauguration of a Hospital

Shaikh Badr, a western suburb of Jerusalem near the village of Deir Yassin (see 411).

The Kaiser in Jerusalem

Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany at the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock (see 1), Jerusalem, 1898. The Kaiser's visit was meant to signal to other European powers Germany's interest in the Arab East, and to strengthen German-Ottoman ties.

The Young Turks Revolution (2)

Jerusalem, 1908: A Palestinian rally, with local officials, celebrating al-Hurriyyah.

Jemal Pasha

Jemal Pasha, a member of the "Young Turks" triumvirate, which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I, with his staff in Jerusalem. Jemal Pasha became governor general and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army in Syria-Palestine in 1914.

Jemal Pasha Reviews His Troops

Jemal Pasha reviewing his troops in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, ca. 1917.

Jerusalem Railroad Station

The Jerusalem railroad station, 1917: Jemal Pasha, Ottoman governor general in Syria-Palestine, and General Erich von Falkenhayn, chief of the German Military Mission to the Orient.

Surrendering Jerusalem

Jerusalem, 9 December 1917: British noncommissioned officers belonging to an advance party of the 219th Battalion, London Regiment, accepting the surrender of Jerusalem from Hussein Salim al-Husseini, mayor of Jerusalem (fourth right with cane).

The Citadel, Old City of Jerusalem

The Citadel, Old City of Jerusalem, 11 December 1917: General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander in chief of the Allied Expeditionary Force, on the occasion of the proclamation of martial law after his entry into the city.

Allenby's Proclamation

Allenby's proclamation: "...lest any of you should be alarmed .... "

The Village of Battir

The village of Battir, southwest of Jerusalem.

Mar Saba

The Christian monastery of Mar Saba, commemorating a Byzantine ascetic of this name who died in A.D. 531. The monastery is located in the wilderness southeast of Jerusalem. Mar is the Arabic word for "saint." Many Palestinian Muslim shrines honor Hebrew prophets and Christian saints.

Musa Janini

Musa Janini (1858-1938), a village elder from Ain Karem, Jerusalem district. Note the sheepskin coat turned inward.

The Old City of Jerusalem from the Church of the Saviour

The Old City of Jerusalem (looking east toward the Mount of Olives) as seen from the belfry of the Church of St. Saviour. Note the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock, top right. (Bonfils)

Peeking Over Jaffa Gate

Scenes at Jaffa Gate, the Old City of Jerusalem: (40) a Bonfils photograph taken just inside the walls looking out.

Outside Jaffa Gate

Scenes at Jaffa Gate, the Old City of Jerusalem: the view from outside the walls.

Al-Aqsa Mosque

The Mosque of al-Aqsa, Jerusalem (see 1), built by the caliph al-Walid ibn-Abd aI-Malik (A.D. 705-715).

Dome of the Rock from al-Aqsa

The Dome of the Rock as seen from the al-Aqsa Mosque. In the foreground is al-Kas (the Cup), a fountain for ritual ablutions. (Bonfils)

Praying at the Wailing Wall

Jewish women praying at the Wailing Wall, Jerusalem. Throughout the centuries of Arab and Muslim rule in Palestine, Jews had free access to the Wailing Wall. Access became an issue only after the 1948 War and the resultant Palestinian diaspora.

St. Anne

The Crusader church of St. Anne in the Old City of Jerusalem, built in A.D. 1140. The Ottoman govemor gave the church to France in 1856, hence the tricolor French flag. (Bonfils)

Easter Procession

Christian Orthodox procession on Easter Day (note the lighted candles) from the Greek Patriarchate to the Holy Sepulcher in the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1910.

Soccer Match

A soccer match in the Palestinian quarter of Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), outside the Old City walls to the northeast - perhaps the earliest photograph of a sports event in Jerusalem. Note the Muslim tomb in the foreground, extreme right.

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, Jerusalem, 1909; named after the Ottoman Constitution promulgated in 1908 (see 3, 6-

St. George's British Anglican School for Boys

St. George's British Anglican school for boys, founded in Jerusalem in 1899, was one of many schools established in the second half of the nineteenth century by European and American missionaries. Many of the students at St.

Khalidi Library

A comer of the Khalidi Library, Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1914. The library was established in 1900 through an endowment provided by the mother of Haj Raghib al-Khalidi (seated second from right).

Izzat Tannous

The St. George's player on the left is Izzat Tannous, a Protestant Palestinian who became a medical doctor and a representative of the Palestine Arab Higher Committee at the United Nations General Assembly.

Faidi al-Alami

Faidi al-Alami, mayor of Jerusalem between 1906 and 1909, and Jerusalem representative in the Ottoman Parliament from 1914 to 1918. Alami was also a scholar, who published a concordance of the Koran.

Nicola Abdo

Nicola Abdo, an administrator in the Orthodox Patriarchate, Jerusalem.

Khalil Raad

Khalil Raad, a famous Palestinian Protestant photographer from Jerusalem, and the owner of another of the collections used in this album. He studied photography in Basel, and appears here in his Ottoman army uniform during World War I.

Theodore Baramki

Theodore Baramki, a Christian Orthodox Jerusalem judge, in formal Ottoman dress.

George Humsi

George Humsi, a Christian Orthodox lawyer and author, Jerusalem.

Nazif al-Khalidi

Nazif al-Khalidi, a Jerusalem engineer. He was one of the principal aides to the German chief engineer Meissner, who supervised the building of the Hijaz Railway, begun in 1900; this railroad linked Damascus and Medina.

On Strike

The Arab commercial center outside Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem, on strike during the Buraq (Wailing Wall) disturbances, 1929.

British Show of Force

British show of force, Jerusalem, August 1929.

Emergency Relief Committee

The Emergency Relief Committee (seen here in session at its headquarters in Jerusalem, 1929) was formed during the 1929 disturbances to aid afflicted Palestinian families.

Palestinian Women Outside High Commissioner's Jerusalem Residence

A delegation of Palestinian women outside the high commissioner’s residence in Jerusalem. The delegation protested the harshness of British measures against the Palestinians during the disturbances. The women wearing hats are Christian. Second left is Mrs.

Motorcade for Womens' Delegation

The motorcade of the women's delegation on its way to the high commissioner's residence.

The Shaw Commission of Inquiry: "disappointment ... and fear"

Members of the Shaw Commission of Inquiry, Jerusalem, October 1929. The Shaw Commission was sent by London to investigate the causes of the 1929 disturbances. Seated center is Sir Walter Shaw, chairman of the commission.

Mourning on Balfour Day (1)

Balfour Day, the Old City of Jerusalem, 2 November 1929. Palestinians and many Arabs commemorated the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) with mourning, as indicated by the black flags.

Mourning on Balfour Day (2)

Balfour Day, the Old City of Jerusalem, 2 November 1929. Palestinians and many Arabs commemorated the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) with mourning, as indicated by the black flags.

Funeral of Muhammad Ali

The funeral procession of Muhammad Ali, one of the foremost Indian Muslim religious leaders and scholars, escorted by Boy Scouts, Jerusalem, 23 January 1931.

Funeral of King Hussein of Hijaz

The funeral of King Hussein of Hijaz, Jerusalem, 4 June 1931.

A Palestinian conference, 1930

A Palestinian conference called on the eve of the departure of the Fourth Palestinian Delegation to London; Jerusalem, March 1930 (see 84). The First Delegation to London in 1921 was followed by two others in 1922.
Raghib al-Nashashibi, mayor of Jerusalem (see 196, 242, 352); and Alfred Roch, prominent Catholic businessman from Jaffa (see

Pan-Islamic Conference, 1931

The Pan-Islamic Conference, Jerusalem, December 1931.

Tunisian and Turkish delegates

Tunisian and Turkish delegates to the Pan-Islamic Conference with Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini (see 78). First left is the Tunisian scholar Abd al-Aziz al-Tha'alibi; the figure in the center is the Turkish philosopher Rida Tawfiq.

Aftermath outside of the New Gate

The aftermath of a Palestinian demonstration protesting Zionist mass immigration, New Gate, Jerusalem, 1933.

Intimidation by Air

Aerial show of force by the British over the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, 1933.

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini's Funeral

The funeral of Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, 27 March 1934. Al-Husseini died at the age of eighty-one. The trauma he had suffered at the hands of the British five months earlier in Jaffa (see 111) hastened his death.

Bab al-Silsilah

The fountain at Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), built during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66), the Old City of Jerusalem.

Taxi Stand

Taxi stand, Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, ca. 1928. Damascus Gate and the Old City walls (see 176) were also built by Suleiman the Magnificent.

View of the Old City

Looking west at the Old City of Jerusalem from the Palestine Archaeological Museum, ca. 1937. In the middle ground is Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate). The building nearest right is the al-Rashidiyyah Secondary School for Boys.

Looking Out Over Jerusalem

Looking northeast at a Palestinian residential quarter just outside Bab al-Zahirah, Jerusalem.

Snowed In

The Old City of Jerusalem under snow, looking toward the Mount of Olives.

David's Tomb

The Muslim shrine and mosque at the site of the tomb of Nabi Daoud (the prophet David), outside the Old City walls, Jerusalem. (See 28 et al.)

The Via Dolorosa

The Via Dolorosa, Fifth Station of the Cross, in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, Jerusalem.

Khalil Raad's Shop

Khalil Raad's shop, Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem (see 72, 124, 125 , 126 , 127 ,

Tea Party

Mayor of Jerusalem Raghib al-Nashashibi (see 100, 242, 352), standing center, gives a tea party at his home in honor of Shaikh Abd al-Hayy al-Kitt

The Arab Medical Conference

The Arab Medical Conference (YMCA, Jerusalem, 1933), attended by physicians from various Arab countries.

Ali al-Kassar visits Jerusalem

Ali al-Kassar (front center), an Egyptian actor, visits friends in Jerusalem, 1934. Seated first right is Fawzi al-Ghosein from Ramleh, a graduate in law from Cambridge University, England.

Palestine Broadcasting Station

Palestinian musicians and singers at the Palestine Broadcasting Station, Jerusalem, 1936.

The Holy Sepulcher

The Holy Sepulcher, Maundy Thursday, 5 April 1934. Presiding is the Christian Orthodox patriarch. Precariously seated on the scaffolding is Wasif Jawhariyyah (wearing a fez) .

Haj Amin al-Husseini

Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 82), mufti of Jerusalem, flanked by Christian religious dignitaries, ca. 1930.

Visiting the Wailing Wall

Orthodox Jews and others in European dress returning from a visit to the Wailing Wall, mid-1930s (see 55, 90).

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi (holding a staff) visits the Haram aI-Sharif (see 1) in Jerusalem, ca. 1923. He was a leader of the Libyan Senussi tariqah, a religious brotherhood.

Celebrating Moses (1)

Al-Nabi Musa ("the Prophet Moses") was the name given to one of the most important annual religious festivals celebrated by Palestinian Muslims; it entailed a procession on foot or on horseback from Jerusalem to the traditional burial site of Moses, near Jericho (see

Celebrating Moses (2)

Al-Nabi Musa ("the Prophet Moses") was the name given to one of the most important annual religious festivals celebrated by Palestinian Muslims; it entailed a procession on foot or on horseback from Jerusalem to the traditional burial site of Moses, near Jericho (see

"The Least Worthy of You Are the Least Learned" (1)

Staff and alumni of the Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, ca. 1919 (see 61); a typical private school. The founder, Khalil Sakakini, is seated first left.

"The Least Worthy of You are the Least Learned" (2)

The Jerusalem Girls' College, ca. 1920; founded by a British Anglican mission. The staff are in the last two rows. The majority of the student body was Palestinian, both Christian and Muslim.

Wataniyyah (National) School

The student body and staff of the private Wataniyyah (National) School, Jerusalem, 1925. Seated center is the indefatigable founder and headmaster, Khalil Sakakini (see 61, 209).

Ladies in a Kindergarten

"Sample" of the kindergarten class at a German Protestant mission school, Schmidt Girls' College, Jerusalem, 1926 (see 241). The young ladies in the picture are all from the same family, the Tajis of Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh.

Graduates of British Universities

Palestinian students at British universities celebrating the wedding of one of their members, Izz aI-Din al-Shawwa, London, 1928.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (1)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its old premises, Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, 1930.

College des Freres

The staff and graduating class of the College des Freres in Jerusalem, 1934. This secondary school was founded by the Franciscan Order in 1875.

Terra Sancta

Terra Sancta College for Boys in Jerusalem, 1932; also founded by the Franciscan Order (see 230).

Schmidt Girls' College Again

The older ladies at the school, Jerusalem, 1947 (see 222).

Search of a Muslim Dignitary

Jerusalem, April 1920. Indian troopers in the British army evenhandedly search a Muslim dignitary.

Search of a Christian Priest

Jerusalem, April 1920. Indian troopers in the British army evenhandedly search a Christian priest.

Fourth Palestinian National Congress

The Fourth Palestinian National Congress, Jerusalem, 25 May 1921. (See 87, 89).

Searches (2)

Steel-helmeted British troops search a Palestinian in Jerusalem and look under a fez just in case!

Solidarity

Collecting contributions for afflicted Palestinian families, Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem. Note the Hotel Fast on the left.

British Police Search Palestinians

British police and army patrols search Palestinians in the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1936.

Mass Arrests

Making collective arrests outside Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, September 1938. The British held 816 Palestinians in detention camps in 1937, and 2,463 in 1938. In 1939 they detained 5,679 Palestinians out of a total Palestinian population of ca. one million.

Laying Siege to Jerusalem's Arab College

Another favorite punitive measure was the harassment and occupation of Palestinian educational institutions by British troops.

Assault on the Old City

An advance detachment of British troops moving to the assault just before the recapture of the Old City.

Back in Control

Back in control, the British allow the inhabitants of the Old City to line up for water.

The King David Hotel (1)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

The King David Hotel (2)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

Interior of al-Aqsa Mosque

Colonnaded interior of the al-Aqsa Mosque. Note the stained-glass windows.

The Mihrab

The mihrab ("niche pointing in the direction of Mecca") and minbar ("pulpit") of the al-Aqsa Mosque.

Jerusalem street scene

Jerusalem street scene outside Jaffa Gate, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (1)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (2)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (3)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Jerusalem's Arab Fair

The Arab Fair when it was first held in Jerusalem, 1933.

Faidi aI-AIami and family

Faidi aI-AIami with his wife and son Musa, Jerusalem, 1919 (see 67). Musa received a law degree from Cambridge University.

Reverend Salih Saba and family

Reverend Salih Saba and family, Jerusalem, ca. 1922. Fuad Saba (standing first left) was the first Palestinian licensed auditor to practice under the British Mandate. By 1948 the F. Saba Company had branches in Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Egypt.

Guard of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem

Guard of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem in the traditional costume of the qawwas ("consular guard").

Palestine Broadcasting Station's "Oriental band"

The "oriental band" (takht) of the Palestine Broadcasting Station entertaining guests at a private party, Jerusalem, 1940.

Women's Teachers' Training College

A singing recital at the Women's Teachers' Training College, Jerusalem, spring 1947.

Anton Attallah

Anton Attallah, judge in the district courts of Jerusalem and Haifa (1939-43), deputy mayor of Jerusalem (1944-46), and minister of foreign affairs for Jordan (1963-67).

The British Entrapped

Barbed wire and other barriers put up by the British around their administrative compound (left) in central Jerusalem, for protection against acts of terrorism by Zionist groups, fall 1947.

UN Partition Plan Facilitates Civil War

The UN partition recommendation (a resolution by the UN General Assembly is not binding) precipitated a series of Jewish-Palestinian clashes. These clashes escalated into total civil war during the remaining months of the British Mandate, which ended on 15 May 1948.

Zionist Terrorism

A bomb thrown from a passing taxi at a bus in the Palestinian residential quarter outside Herod's Gate, Jerusalem, on 29 December 1947 killed seventeen Palestinian civilians.

Zionism's Child Casualties

Palestinian policeman carrying a child victim of the incident recorded in 391.

Take Cover!

Palestinian civilians (and British constables) taking cover from sniper fire, Jerusalem, February 1948.

'Palestine Post' Explosion

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: an explosion at the offices of the Palestine Post in Jerusalem killed twenty Jewish civilians on 1 February 1948.

Explosion along Ben Yehuda Street

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: fifty-seven Jewish civilians died in an explosion on Ben Yehuda Street in Jerusalem on 22 February 1948.

Attack on Jewish Agency Headquarters

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: twelve Jewish civilians were killed at the Jewish Agency headquarters in Jerusalem on 11 March 1948.

The Battle for the Roads (1)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

The Battle for the Roads (2)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

The Battle for the Roads (3)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

Deir Yassin

While the Haganah was battling to recapture Castel on 9 April 1948, eighty men of the Irgun, on orders from Menachem Begin, attacked the tiny village of Deir Yassin (shown here) in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, about three miles east of Castel and next to the Jewish neighborhood of Givat Sha

Altogether nearly two hundred Palestinian villages were attacked and conquered by Zionist forces before the end of the Mandate on 15 May 1948. Many of the inhabitants suffered injury or death, and all were expelled or fled in fear from their homes.

Haganah in Jerusalem

A Haganah military column arrives in Jerusalem from Tel Aviv, April 1948, in accordance with Plan Dalet (see 409, 410, 411).

Night Fighting

Night fighting in Jerusalem, early May 1948.

Count Bernadotte

On 13 May 1948 Count Folke Bernadotte, member of the Swedish royal family and International Red Cross representative in Europe during the later stages of World War II, was appointed by the United Nations as a mediator to seek a settlement of the Palestine conflict.

Abandoning Ship

General Sir Alan Cunningham, British high commissioner, inspecting a guard of honor as he left his official residence in Jerusalem for the last time, 14 May 1948. The British Mandate for Palestine came to its ignominious end on 15 May 1948.