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education

Soccer Match

A soccer match in the Palestinian quarter of Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), outside the Old City walls to the northeast - perhaps the earliest photograph of a sports event in Jerusalem. Note the Muslim tomb in the foreground, extreme right.

Christian Orthodox Girls' School

Staff and students of the Christian Orthodox Girls' School in Beit Jala (near Bethlehem), 1906. Note that the students are wearing their traditional costumes.

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, Jerusalem, 1909; named after the Ottoman Constitution promulgated in 1908 (see 3, 6-

St. George's British Anglican School for Boys

St. George's British Anglican school for boys, founded in Jerusalem in 1899, was one of many schools established in the second half of the nineteenth century by European and American missionaries. Many of the students at St.

Khalidi Library

A comer of the Khalidi Library, Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1914. The library was established in 1900 through an endowment provided by the mother of Haj Raghib al-Khalidi (seated second from right).

Izzat Tannous

The St. George's player on the left is Izzat Tannous, a Protestant Palestinian who became a medical doctor and a representative of the Palestine Arab Higher Committee at the United Nations General Assembly.

Ruhi al-Khalidi

Ruhi al-Khalidi (1861-1913), elected from Jerusalem to the Ottoman Parliament in 1908 and 1912, and vice-president of the Parliament in 1911. Earlier in his career he had lectured at the Sorbonne and served as Ottoman consul general in Bordeaux.

George Humsi

George Humsi, a Christian Orthodox lawyer and author, Jerusalem.

The Arab Medical Conference

The Arab Medical Conference (YMCA, Jerusalem, 1933), attended by physicians from various Arab countries.

"The Least Worthy of You Are the Least Learned" (1)

Staff and alumni of the Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, ca. 1919 (see 61); a typical private school. The founder, Khalil Sakakini, is seated first left.

"The Least Worthy of You are the Least Learned" (2)

The Jerusalem Girls' College, ca. 1920; founded by a British Anglican mission. The staff are in the last two rows. The majority of the student body was Palestinian, both Christian and Muslim.

The Staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School

The staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. Seated center is Salim Katul, author of a series of textbooks in Arabic on the natural sciences.

Government Secondary Boys' School's Top Soccer Team

The top soccer team at the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. The men in the fezzes are members of the staff. Salim Katul (see 211) is standing first left.

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts with camping gear (transport included!), Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1924. The boy third left, first row, is carrying a bag with the Arabic word for "first aid" on it.

Government Secondary Boys' School Carpentry Class

Carpentry class, 1924. The inscription over the door reads, "The least worthy of you are the least learned."

Irfan (Knowledge) School

Students, including Wolf Cubs, and staff of the Irfan (Knowledge) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1922.

Najah School Staff and Graduating Class

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1918. It became the nucleus of the present Najah University on the West Bank.

Najah School

The student body, including Scout troops, and staff of the Najah School, Nablus, 1924.

Wataniyyah (National) School

The student body and staff of the private Wataniyyah (National) School, Jerusalem, 1925. Seated center is the indefatigable founder and headmaster, Khalil Sakakini (see 61, 209).

Salahiyyah School

The staff of the private Salahiyyah School (so called after Saladin), Nablus, 1926.

Ladies in a Kindergarten

"Sample" of the kindergarten class at a German Protestant mission school, Schmidt Girls' College, Jerusalem, 1926 (see 241). The young ladies in the picture are all from the same family, the Tajis of Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh.

Graduates of British Universities

Palestinian students at British universities celebrating the wedding of one of their members, Izz aI-Din al-Shawwa, London, 1928.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (1)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its old premises, Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, 1930.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (2)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its new premises on Jabal al-Mukabbir, "the Mount of the Glorifier," south of Jerusalem, 1938. (This was the site from which the caliph Omar, on his way to Jerusalem to accept its capitulation from the Byzantines in A.D.

...And Its Base: The Village School (1)

At the other end of the spectrum were the village schools. The two schools pictured here are typical of some 420 village schools that existed in Palestine by the end of the Mandate.

...And Its Base: The Village School (2)

At the other end of the spectrum were the village schools. The two schools pictured here (228 and 229) are typical of some 420 village schools that existed in Palestine by the end of the Mandate.

College des Freres

The staff and graduating class of the College des Freres in Jerusalem, 1934. This secondary school was founded by the Franciscan Order in 1875.

Moroccan Students in Nablus

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1932.

Terra Sancta

Terra Sancta College for Boys in Jerusalem, 1932; also founded by the Franciscan Order (see 230).

Palestinian Teachers in Iraq

Young Palestinian teachers pursuing higher studies in Iraq, 1934. Seated center is Akram Zu'aiter, then lecturer at the Teachers' Training College, Baghdad. This photograph illustrates again the cultural interaction between Palestine and the Arab world.

Music in Jaffa (1)

Students of the National Christian Orthodox School, Jaffa, 1938. The school was founded in 1921 by the Christian Orthodox Welfare Society.

Music in Jaffa (2)

School band of the National Christian Orthodox School, Jaffa, 1938. The school was founded in 1921 by the Christian Orthodox Welfare Society.

Rowing on the Cam

Abdurrahman Bushnaq (graduate of the Arab College in Jerusalem), stroke of Jesus College rowing crew (second left), on the River Cam, Cambridge University, where he read English literature, 1935.

The Arab College in the 1940s (2)

Brushing up their Latin. The lecturer, George Hourani, graduated from Oxford University and wrote several books including Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times (Princeton University Press, 1951) and Islamic Rationalism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971).

Schmidt Girls' College Again

The older ladies at the school, Jerusalem, 1947 (see 222).

Readings in Philology and Literature

Readings in Philology and Literature, by Khalil al-Sakakini.

Modern Science and Us

Modern Science and Us, by Is'af al-Nashashibi.

Laying Siege to Jerusalem's Arab College

Another favorite punitive measure was the harassment and occupation of Palestinian educational institutions by British troops.

The Town of Safed, northern Galilee

The town of Safed in northern Galilee; the round objects in the foreground are "hay cakes" drying in the sun (they were placed under cooking vessels to protect the latter from direct contact with the fire) . By the end of the Mandate the total population of Safed was ca. 11,930, of whom ca.

Schoolmasters

Schoolmasters, Jaffa, ca. 1923. Seated is Thabit al-Khalidi, author of a chemistry textbook, who became Jordanian ambassador to the United Nations and later to Iran.

Khalil Baydas

Khalil Baydas from Nazareth (1874-1949), Russian scholar and pioneer of the modern Palestinian novel. As early as 1898, he had translated some of the works of Tolstoy and Pushkin into Arabic. Khalil was the father of Yusuf Baydas, a Palestinian banker.

Palestinian Students at the American University in Beirut

A predominantly Palestinian group of political science students at the American University of Beirut, 1937.

Asma Tubi and Safiyyah Riyahi

Palestinian author Asma Tubi from Nazareth (on arm of chair); and Safiyyah Riyahi from Jaffa (seated), who became a lecturer in Arabic at Beirut College for Women; 1938.

Gather around

Except three gentlemen (the second, third, and fourth from the left in the first standing row), all the others are Christian Palestinians representing a cross-section of ages and professions.

The occasion for this gathering is unknown; the location, Nablus; the date, ca. 1925.

Government Girls' School

Girl Guides of the Government Girls' School in Nazareth, 1940.

Dancing in the gymnasium

Dancing in the gymnasium, Jerusalem Girls' College, early 1940s.

The Merchant of Venice in Ramallah

Performers in The Merchant of Venice at the Friends' Boys School, Ramallah, ca. 1941. Sa'id Abu Hamdeh, later a professional photographer, is first right.

An-Najah English Debating Society

The English Debating Society of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1942. Isam Abbasi (standing second from right) became a poet and novelist as well as literary contributor to al-Ittihad, a newspaper in Haifa.

Moghannam Moghannam

Moghannam Moghannam, an American-educated Protestant lawyer from Ramallah in the "oriental" room of his house, ca. 1944.

Wajidah Taji

Wajidah Taji, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1946. Wajidah became principal aide to Musa al-Alami (see 343) at the Boys' Farm in Jericho, run by the Arab Development Society.

George Shibr

The board of directors and some members of the Arab Architects' and Engineers' Association of Jerusalem at the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, 1947.

Women's Teachers' Training College

A singing recital at the Women's Teachers' Training College, Jerusalem, spring 1947.

Schmidt Girls' College

Boarders at Schmidt Girls' College in the orange orchards of Jericho, 1947.