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Jerusalem: Allah's Choice

"The choice of Allah of all his lands is Jerusalem . . . the dew which descends upon Jerusalem is a remedy from every sickness, because it is from the gardens of Paradise.”

This vast compound some thirty-four acres in area, known as the Haram aI-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary), is situated in the Old City of Jerusalem, one of the three holiest cities of Islam (the other two being Mecca and Medina).

Jesus: Allah's Word

"The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary ... His word which He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him ... "

The Star of Bethlehem, Church of the Nativity. Islam is deeply imbued with Judeo-Christian beliefs and traditions. The prophet Muhammad is seen by Muslims as the last and "seal" (khatim) of a long line of earlier prophets.

Talbiyya Quarter, West Jerusalem

A general view of the Talbiyya quarter, West Jerusalem, early 1940s.

The Inauguration of a Hospital

Shaikh Badr, a western suburb of Jerusalem near the village of Deir Yassin (see 411).

Ramleh, from the West

Ramleh, from the west. Ramleh was founded by the Arabs in A.D. 716, and for some time thereafter it was the capital of the Arab province (djund) of Filastin (Palestine).

The Kaiser in Jerusalem

Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany at the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock (see 1), Jerusalem, 1898. The Kaiser's visit was meant to signal to other European powers Germany's interest in the Arab East, and to strengthen German-Ottoman ties.

The Young Turks Revolution (1)

The Grand Serai (see 164, 393), housing local government offices, Jaffa, July 1908: A large Palestinian crowd gathers to celebrate the revolution in Constantinople popularly known by the Arabs as al-Hurriyyah (Ara

The Young Turks Revolution (2)

Jerusalem, 1908: A Palestinian rally, with local officials, celebrating al-Hurriyyah.

Jemal Pasha Reviews His Troops

Jemal Pasha reviewing his troops in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, ca. 1917.

Jerusalem Railroad Station

The Jerusalem railroad station, 1917: Jemal Pasha, Ottoman governor general in Syria-Palestine, and General Erich von Falkenhayn, chief of the German Military Mission to the Orient.

Surrendering Jerusalem

Jerusalem, 9 December 1917: British noncommissioned officers belonging to an advance party of the 219th Battalion, London Regiment, accepting the surrender of Jerusalem from Hussein Salim al-Husseini, mayor of Jerusalem (fourth right with cane).

The Citadel, Old City of Jerusalem

The Citadel, Old City of Jerusalem, 11 December 1917: General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander in chief of the Allied Expeditionary Force, on the occasion of the proclamation of martial law after his entry into the city.

Fifth Australian Light Horse Brigade

Troops of the Fifth Australian Light Horse Brigade, under Allenby's command, enter Nablus to establish Allied control, 21 September 1918.

Fourth Regiment Chasseurs d'Afrique

Men of one of the French contingents under AIlenby's command, the Fourth Regiment Chasseurs d'Afrique, enter the village of Anabta east of Tulkarm in central Palestine, late September 1918.

Indian Troops

And Indian troops (the Jodhpore and Mysore Lancers, Fifteenth Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade) enter Haifa, 23 September 1918.

Overlooking the Village of Askar

Horseman overlooking the village of Askar east of Nablus, central Palestine.

On the Slopes of Mount Tabor

Horseman overlooking the village of Daburiyyah on the slopes of Mount Tabor, Galilee.

Looking Toward Marj Ibn Amer

Standing figure looking toward Marj Ibn Amer (the Plain of Jezreel).

View of Shepherds' Field from Bethlehem

Shepherds' Field as seen from Bethlehem. The village in the background is Beit Sahur. Note the terraces.

The Village of Battir

The village of Battir, southwest of Jerusalem.

General View of Jenin

A general view of Jenin, central Palestine. (Bonfils)

Village of Ein Karim

The village of Ein Karim, west of Jerusalem. (Bonfils)

The Mosque of Nabi Samu'il

The Mosque of Nabi Samu'il (the prophet Samuel), just northwest of Jerusalem. (Bonfils)

Tomb of Nabi Yusuf

The Muslim shrine at the traditional tomb of Nabi Yusuf (the prophet Joseph), east of Nablus.

Tabitha's Well

The Muslim shrine at the traditional site of Tabitha's Well, east of Jaffa. Tabitha is mentioned in Acts 9:36-41.

Group of Villagers

A group of villagers in Bethlehem, south of Jerusalem.

Auja al-Hafir

Auja al-Hafir, near the Egyptian border; in the foreground is the central square. Note the Ottoman army camps on the outskirts.

Gaza, "The City of Hashim"

Gaza, "the City of Hashim"; so called because Gaza is the burial place of Hashim, grandfather of the prophet Muhammad. (Bonfils)

Hebron (Al-Khalil)

Hebron (aI-Khalil in Arabic). The Arabic name means "friend" or "companion," the reference being to Abraham, the "friend" or "companion" of God, who is believed by Muslims as well as Jews to have been buried in Hebron.

The Old City of Jerusalem from the Church of the Saviour

The Old City of Jerusalem (looking east toward the Mount of Olives) as seen from the belfry of the Church of St. Saviour. Note the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock, top right. (Bonfils)

Peeking Over Jaffa Gate

Scenes at Jaffa Gate, the Old City of Jerusalem: (40) a Bonfils photograph taken just inside the walls looking out.

Outside Jaffa Gate

Scenes at Jaffa Gate, the Old City of Jerusalem: the view from outside the walls.

Jaffa's Railroad

Jaffa: one of the first railroad piers to be built at the port.

Al-Aqsa Mosque

The Mosque of al-Aqsa, Jerusalem (see 1), built by the caliph al-Walid ibn-Abd aI-Malik (A.D. 705-715).

Dome of the Rock from al-Aqsa

The Dome of the Rock as seen from the al-Aqsa Mosque. In the foreground is al-Kas (the Cup), a fountain for ritual ablutions. (Bonfils)

Grotto, Church of the Nativity

Grotto of the Nativity, Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem (see 2). Note the Ottoman gendarme standing guard to prevent intersectarian Christian conflict.

Christmas Day

Pilgrims entering the town of Bethlehem on Christmas Day. (Bonfils)

Praying at the Wailing Wall

Jewish women praying at the Wailing Wall, Jerusalem. Throughout the centuries of Arab and Muslim rule in Palestine, Jews had free access to the Wailing Wall. Access became an issue only after the 1948 War and the resultant Palestinian diaspora.

St. Anne

The Crusader church of St. Anne in the Old City of Jerusalem, built in A.D. 1140. The Ottoman govemor gave the church to France in 1856, hence the tricolor French flag. (Bonfils)

Easter Procession

Christian Orthodox procession on Easter Day (note the lighted candles) from the Greek Patriarchate to the Holy Sepulcher in the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1910.

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, Jerusalem, 1909; named after the Ottoman Constitution promulgated in 1908 (see 3, 6-

St. George's British Anglican School for Boys

St. George's British Anglican school for boys, founded in Jerusalem in 1899, was one of many schools established in the second half of the nineteenth century by European and American missionaries. Many of the students at St.

Khalidi Library

A comer of the Khalidi Library, Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1914. The library was established in 1900 through an endowment provided by the mother of Haj Raghib al-Khalidi (seated second from right).

Aftermath outside of the New Gate

The aftermath of a Palestinian demonstration protesting Zionist mass immigration, New Gate, Jerusalem, 1933.

Intimidation by Air

Aerial show of force by the British over the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, 1933.

British Riot Police

British riot police, mounted and on foot, block the path of a demonstration protesting Zionist mass immigration, Jaffa, 27 October 1933.

Demonstration in Jaffa's Central Square

British mounted police charge into a crowd of demonstrators, Central Square, Jaffa, 27 October 1933.

Jericho's Orchards

Orchards in Jericho. Many wealthy Palestinians from Jerusalem had winter houses in Jericho.

Ein Karim

Ein Karim, west of Jerusalem


The village and valley of Silwan, just east of the walls of Jerusalem, looking south. In the distance note Government House, the residence of the British high commissioner, on the so-called Hill of Evil Counsel!

Abu Ghosh

Abu Ghosh, about fourteen kilometers from Jerusalem, on the road to Jaffa.

Beit Sahur from Shepherds' Field

Beit Sahur seen from Shepherds' Field near Bethlehem, looking east.

Hills of Bethlehem

The hills of Bethlehem. Note the traditional headdress.

Extended Family

An extended family in the village of Beit Sahur, near Bethlehem.

The Jaffa Orange: The Palestinian Gift to the World

#'s 149-157 Today the Jaffa orange is the agricultural product that is most closely associated with Israeli production. Yet Palestinian expertise had already developed the Jaffa orange before Zionist colonization of Palestine got under way.

Church of the Nativity

Bethlehem; the second tower from the left is that of the Church of the Nativity.

Looking Out to Sea

Jaffa, looking out to sea. Until 1936, before the development of the Haifa and Tel Aviv harbors, Jaffa was the main seaport of Palestine.

Jaffa's Central Square

Central Square, Jaffa, soon after the inauguration of the British Mandate. The building with pillars, on the right, is the Grand Serai (see 6, 393).

Nuzhah Quarter from Jaffa

Jaffa, looking toward the new Palestinian residential Nuzhah quarter, ca. 1935. Note the contrast in means of transportation with the previous photograph.

Tiberias (1)

Tiberias, looking south, ca. 1935. The mosque in the foreground, known as the Upper Mosque, was built at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

Bab al-Silsilah

The fountain at Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), built during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66), the Old City of Jerusalem.

Taxi Stand

Taxi stand, Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, ca. 1928. Damascus Gate and the Old City walls (see 176) were also built by Suleiman the Magnificent.

View of the Old City

Looking west at the Old City of Jerusalem from the Palestine Archaeological Museum, ca. 1937. In the middle ground is Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate). The building nearest right is the al-Rashidiyyah Secondary School for Boys.

Looking Out Over Jerusalem

Looking northeast at a Palestinian residential quarter just outside Bab al-Zahirah, Jerusalem.

Snowed In

The Old City of Jerusalem under snow, looking toward the Mount of Olives.

Jazzar Mosque

The inner courtyard of the Jazzar Mosque at Acre, built in 1781 by Ahmad al-Jazzar, who in 1799 checked the advance of Napoleon through Palestine with the help of a British naval squadron commanded by Sir Sydney Smith.

Leah's Tomb

The tomb of Leah with embroidered drapery, in the Mosque of Abraham, Hebron.

Gaza's Grand Mosque

The Grand Mosque in Gaza, originally a twelfth-century A.D. structure.

David's Tomb

The Muslim shrine and mosque at the site of the tomb of Nabi Daoud (the prophet David), outside the Old City walls, Jerusalem. (See 28 et al.)

The Via Dolorosa

The Via Dolorosa, Fifth Station of the Cross, in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, Jerusalem.

The Holy Sepulcher

The Holy Sepulcher, Maundy Thursday, 5 April 1934. Presiding is the Christian Orthodox patriarch. Precariously seated on the scaffolding is Wasif Jawhariyyah (wearing a fez) .

Visiting the Wailing Wall

Orthodox Jews and others in European dress returning from a visit to the Wailing Wall, mid-1930s (see 55, 90).

Palestinian Christian Orthodox Conference

A conference of Palestinian Christian Orthodox priests, Ramallah, September 1932.

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi (holding a staff) visits the Haram aI-Sharif (see 1) in Jerusalem, ca. 1923. He was a leader of the Libyan Senussi tariqah, a religious brotherhood.

Celebrating Moses (1)

Al-Nabi Musa ("the Prophet Moses") was the name given to one of the most important annual religious festivals celebrated by Palestinian Muslims; it entailed a procession on foot or on horseback from Jerusalem to the traditional burial site of Moses, near Jericho (see

Celebrating Moses (2)

Al-Nabi Musa ("the Prophet Moses") was the name given to one of the most important annual religious festivals celebrated by Palestinian Muslims; it entailed a procession on foot or on horseback from Jerusalem to the traditional burial site of Moses, near Jericho (see

Moroccan Students in Nablus

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1932.

Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa

The Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa, October 1925 (see 68, 82-83, 87).


British riot police clash with Palestinian demonstrators and make front-page news in London; Central Square, Jaffa, 1936.

Laying Siege to Jaffa's Old City

The British cordon off the Old City of Jaffa before the demolition starts.

Guerilla Stamps

A guerrilla stamp, 1938, showing the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock.

British Police Search Palestinians

British police and army patrols search Palestinians in the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1936.

Assault on the Old City

An advance detachment of British troops moving to the assault just before the recapture of the Old City.

The King David Hotel (2)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

Haifa Railroad Station

The railroad station at Haifa blown up by Zionist terrorists, fall 1946.


Acre, looking south toward the Old City and the new suburbs beyond. By the end of the Mandate the total population of Acre was ca. 12,360, of whom ca. 50 were Jews and the rest Palestinians.

Ramallah's terraces and houses

Houses and terraces of Ramallah. By the end of the Mandate the total population of Ramallah was ca. 5,000, all of whom were Palestinians, the majority Christians. Ramallah was captured by Israel during the 1967 War.


The population of Nablus (ca. 23,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian.

Hebron, from a balcony

Hebron, from a balcony. The population of Hebron (ca. 25,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian. The city was captured by Israel in 1967.

Gaza from Jabal Muntar

Gaza, from Jabal Muntar, 1943. The population of Gaza (ca. 34,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian. The city was captured by Israel in 1956, and again in 1967.

Aerial view of Beit Jala

Beit Jala, near Bethlehem, from the air. At the end of the Mandate its population was ca. 4,000, almost all of whom were Christian Palestinians. The village was captured by Israel in 1967.

The Stout Sea Walls of Acre

The stout sea walls of Acre, originally constructed in the ninth century A.D.

Jaffa, mid-1940s

Jaffa in the mid-1940s. By the end of the Mandate Jaffa's population was about 100,000, of whom about 30 percent were Jews and the rest Palestinians.

A villa in Ramallah

Distinctive local architecture: a villa in Ramallah.

The Mihrab

The mihrab ("niche pointing in the direction of Mecca") and minbar ("pulpit") of the al-Aqsa Mosque.

Jerusalem street scene

Jerusalem street scene outside Jaffa Gate, early 1940s.

The Tannous Building

The Tannous building (owned by a Protestant Palestinian family), West Jerusalem, where much of the property was Palestinian-owned, early 1940s.

A house in Talbiyya, West Jerusalem

A house in the Palestinian residential quarter of Talbiyya, West Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (1)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (2)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (3)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestine Broadcasting Station's "Oriental band"

The "oriental band" (takht) of the Palestine Broadcasting Station entertaining guests at a private party, Jerusalem, 1940.

Government Girls' School

Girl Guides of the Government Girls' School in Nazareth, 1940.

An-Najah English Debating Society

The English Debating Society of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1942. Isam Abbasi (standing second from right) became a poet and novelist as well as literary contributor to al-Ittihad, a newspaper in Haifa.

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine, Gaza, 1945. In the front row, left to right, are Hashim al-Jayyusi (see 350), Rushdi al-Shawwa (Gaza), Omar Bitar (Jaffa), Shaikh Mustafa al-Khairi (Ramleh), and Suleiman Tuqan (Nablus).

Mayor Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari

Muslim dignitaries conferring in the courtyard of the Ibrahimi (Abraham) Mosque, Hebron, 1947 (see 180). The mayor of Hebron, Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari, is on the right.

George Shibr

The board of directors and some members of the Arab Architects' and Engineers' Association of Jerusalem at the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, 1947.

Cairo Street Rejects Palestine Partition

On 29 November 1947 a resolution recommending the partition of Palestine into a Jewish state and a Palestinian state was virtually forced through the United Nations General Assembly by the United States. It was received with shock and consternation by the entire Arab and Muslim worlds.