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Jerusalem: Allah's Choice

"The choice of Allah of all his lands is Jerusalem . . . the dew which descends upon Jerusalem is a remedy from every sickness, because it is from the gardens of Paradise.”

This vast compound some thirty-four acres in area, known as the Haram aI-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary), is situated in the Old City of Jerusalem, one of the three holiest cities of Islam (the other two being Mecca and Medina).

Jesus: Allah's Word


"The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary ... His word which He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him ... "

The Star of Bethlehem, Church of the Nativity. Islam is deeply imbued with Judeo-Christian beliefs and traditions. The prophet Muhammad is seen by Muslims as the last and "seal" (khatim) of a long line of earlier prophets.

Talbiyya Quarter, West Jerusalem

A general view of the Talbiyya quarter, West Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi

Yusuf Diya-uddin Pasha al-Khalidi, elected from Jerusalem to the first Ottoman Parliament of 1877, where he was an active member of the opposition; mayor of Jerusalem in 1899.

The Inauguration of a Hospital

Shaikh Badr, a western suburb of Jerusalem near the village of Deir Yassin (see 411).

Ramleh, from the West

Ramleh, from the west. Ramleh was founded by the Arabs in A.D. 716, and for some time thereafter it was the capital of the Arab province (djund) of Filastin (Palestine).

The Kaiser in Jerusalem

Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany at the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock (see 1), Jerusalem, 1898. The Kaiser's visit was meant to signal to other European powers Germany's interest in the Arab East, and to strengthen German-Ottoman ties.

The Young Turks Revolution (1)

The Grand Serai (see 164, 393), housing local government offices, Jaffa, July 1908: A large Palestinian crowd gathers to celebrate the revolution in Constantinople popularly known by the Arabs as al-Hurriyyah (Ara

The Young Turks Revolution (2)

Jerusalem, 1908: A Palestinian rally, with local officials, celebrating al-Hurriyyah.

Jemal Pasha

Jemal Pasha, a member of the "Young Turks" triumvirate, which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I, with his staff in Jerusalem. Jemal Pasha became governor general and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army in Syria-Palestine in 1914.

Jemal Pasha Reviews His Troops

Jemal Pasha reviewing his troops in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, ca. 1917.

Jerusalem Railroad Station

The Jerusalem railroad station, 1917: Jemal Pasha, Ottoman governor general in Syria-Palestine, and General Erich von Falkenhayn, chief of the German Military Mission to the Orient.

Surrendering Jerusalem

Jerusalem, 9 December 1917: British noncommissioned officers belonging to an advance party of the 219th Battalion, London Regiment, accepting the surrender of Jerusalem from Hussein Salim al-Husseini, mayor of Jerusalem (fourth right with cane).

The Citadel, Old City of Jerusalem

The Citadel, Old City of Jerusalem, 11 December 1917: General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander in chief of the Allied Expeditionary Force, on the occasion of the proclamation of martial law after his entry into the city.

Fifth Australian Light Horse Brigade

Troops of the Fifth Australian Light Horse Brigade, under Allenby's command, enter Nablus to establish Allied control, 21 September 1918.

Fourth Regiment Chasseurs d'Afrique

Men of one of the French contingents under AIlenby's command, the Fourth Regiment Chasseurs d'Afrique, enter the village of Anabta east of Tulkarm in central Palestine, late September 1918.

Indian Troops

And Indian troops (the Jodhpore and Mysore Lancers, Fifteenth Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade) enter Haifa, 23 September 1918.

Overlooking the Village of Askar

Horseman overlooking the village of Askar east of Nablus, central Palestine.

On the Slopes of Mount Tabor

Horseman overlooking the village of Daburiyyah on the slopes of Mount Tabor, Galilee.

Looking Toward Marj Ibn Amer

Standing figure looking toward Marj Ibn Amer (the Plain of Jezreel).

View of Shepherds' Field from Bethlehem

Shepherds' Field as seen from Bethlehem. The village in the background is Beit Sahur. Note the terraces.

The Village of Battir

The village of Battir, southwest of Jerusalem.

General View of Jenin

A general view of Jenin, central Palestine. (Bonfils)

Village of Ein Karim

The village of Ein Karim, west of Jerusalem. (Bonfils)

Mar Saba

The Christian monastery of Mar Saba, commemorating a Byzantine ascetic of this name who died in A.D. 531. The monastery is located in the wilderness southeast of Jerusalem. Mar is the Arabic word for "saint." Many Palestinian Muslim shrines honor Hebrew prophets and Christian saints.

The Mosque of Nabi Samu'il

The Mosque of Nabi Samu'il (the prophet Samuel), just northwest of Jerusalem. (Bonfils)

Tomb of Nabi Yusuf

The Muslim shrine at the traditional tomb of Nabi Yusuf (the prophet Joseph), east of Nablus.

Tabitha's Well

The Muslim shrine at the traditional site of Tabitha's Well, east of Jaffa. Tabitha is mentioned in Acts 9:36-41.

Group of Villagers

A group of villagers in Bethlehem, south of Jerusalem.

Water Pipe and Coffee

Bethlehem women at home drinking coffee and smoking a water pipe, or "hubble-bubble."

Two Young Girls from Bethlehem

A Bonfils portrait of two young girls from Bethlehem. Each region in Palestine has its distinctive embroidery patterns and style for adorning women's clothing. The headdress often has coins sewn into it.

Musa Janini

Musa Janini (1858-1938), a village elder from Ain Karem, Jerusalem district. Note the sheepskin coat turned inward.

Auja al-Hafir

Auja al-Hafir, near the Egyptian border; in the foreground is the central square. Note the Ottoman army camps on the outskirts.

Gaza, "The City of Hashim"

Gaza, "the City of Hashim"; so called because Gaza is the burial place of Hashim, grandfather of the prophet Muhammad. (Bonfils)

Hebron (Al-Khalil)

Hebron (aI-Khalil in Arabic). The Arabic name means "friend" or "companion," the reference being to Abraham, the "friend" or "companion" of God, who is believed by Muslims as well as Jews to have been buried in Hebron.

The Old City of Jerusalem from the Church of the Saviour

The Old City of Jerusalem (looking east toward the Mount of Olives) as seen from the belfry of the Church of St. Saviour. Note the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock, top right. (Bonfils)

Peeking Over Jaffa Gate

Scenes at Jaffa Gate, the Old City of Jerusalem: (40) a Bonfils photograph taken just inside the walls looking out.

Outside Jaffa Gate

Scenes at Jaffa Gate, the Old City of Jerusalem: the view from outside the walls.

Al-Aqsa Mosque

The Mosque of al-Aqsa, Jerusalem (see 1), built by the caliph al-Walid ibn-Abd aI-Malik (A.D. 705-715).

Dome of the Rock from al-Aqsa

The Dome of the Rock as seen from the al-Aqsa Mosque. In the foreground is al-Kas (the Cup), a fountain for ritual ablutions. (Bonfils)

Russian Pilgrims at the Jordan River

Russian pilgrims at the Jordan River. Following the development of steamship navigation, the number of Christian pilgrims from Europe greatly increased.

Grotto, Church of the Nativity

Grotto of the Nativity, Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem (see 2). Note the Ottoman gendarme standing guard to prevent intersectarian Christian conflict.

Christmas Day

Pilgrims entering the town of Bethlehem on Christmas Day. (Bonfils)

Praying at the Wailing Wall

Jewish women praying at the Wailing Wall, Jerusalem. Throughout the centuries of Arab and Muslim rule in Palestine, Jews had free access to the Wailing Wall. Access became an issue only after the 1948 War and the resultant Palestinian diaspora.

The White Mosque

The minaret of the White Mosque at Ramleh; also known as the Tower of the Forty Martyrs. Rebuilt in A.D. 1318, it was situated at the midpoint of the mosque enclosure's north wall. The mosque is otherwise in ruins. (Bonfils)

St. Anne

The Crusader church of St. Anne in the Old City of Jerusalem, built in A.D. 1140. The Ottoman govemor gave the church to France in 1856, hence the tricolor French flag. (Bonfils)

Easter Procession

Christian Orthodox procession on Easter Day (note the lighted candles) from the Greek Patriarchate to the Holy Sepulcher in the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1910.

Soccer Match

A soccer match in the Palestinian quarter of Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), outside the Old City walls to the northeast - perhaps the earliest photograph of a sports event in Jerusalem. Note the Muslim tomb in the foreground, extreme right.

Christian Orthodox Girls' School

Staff and students of the Christian Orthodox Girls' School in Beit Jala (near Bethlehem), 1906. Note that the students are wearing their traditional costumes.

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School

The Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, Jerusalem, 1909; named after the Ottoman Constitution promulgated in 1908 (see 3, 6-

St. George's British Anglican School for Boys

St. George's British Anglican school for boys, founded in Jerusalem in 1899, was one of many schools established in the second half of the nineteenth century by European and American missionaries. Many of the students at St.

St. George's Soccer Team

St. George's soccer team. One of its proudest feats was to beat the American University of Beirut's team on the latter's home ground in 1909.

Khalidi Library

A comer of the Khalidi Library, Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1914. The library was established in 1900 through an endowment provided by the mother of Haj Raghib al-Khalidi (seated second from right).

Izzat Tannous

The St. George's player on the left is Izzat Tannous, a Protestant Palestinian who became a medical doctor and a representative of the Palestine Arab Higher Committee at the United Nations General Assembly.

Ruhi al-Khalidi

Ruhi al-Khalidi (1861-1913), elected from Jerusalem to the Ottoman Parliament in 1908 and 1912, and vice-president of the Parliament in 1911. Earlier in his career he had lectured at the Sorbonne and served as Ottoman consul general in Bordeaux.

Faidi al-Alami

Faidi al-Alami, mayor of Jerusalem between 1906 and 1909, and Jerusalem representative in the Ottoman Parliament from 1914 to 1918. Alami was also a scholar, who published a concordance of the Koran.

Arif Pasha Dajani

Arif Pasha Dajani (died 1930), mayor of Jerusalem during World War I. Immediately after the war he headed the Muslim-Christian Society in Jerusalem.

Shaikh As'ad al-Shukairi

Shaikh As'ad al-Shukairi, elected to the Ottoman Parliament from Acre in 1908 and 1912. He was trained in Islamic religious law, having graduated from Azhar University, Cairo.

Nicola Abdo

Nicola Abdo, an administrator in the Orthodox Patriarchate, Jerusalem.

Khalil Jawhariyyah

Khalil Jawhariyyah was the brother of Wasif Jawhariyyah, a noted Christian Orthodox connoisseur, and the owner of one of the rich collections of photographs widely used in this album. Khalil is seen here in the uniform of a private in the Ottoman army during World War I.

Khalil Raad

Khalil Raad, a famous Palestinian Protestant photographer from Jerusalem, and the owner of another of the collections used in this album. He studied photography in Basel, and appears here in his Ottoman army uniform during World War I.

Sa'id al-Shawwa

Sa'id al-Shawwa, a leading Gaza notable and grain exporter. After the British occupation, he became mayor of Gaza and a member of the Supreme Muslim Council - the highest body in charge of Muslim community affairs.

Theodore Baramki

Theodore Baramki, a Christian Orthodox Jerusalem judge, in formal Ottoman dress.

Saba Ya'qub Sa'id

Saba Ya'qub Sa'id, a Christian Orthodox lawyer, and legal counselor to the Orthodox Patriarchate in Palestine.

George Humsi

George Humsi, a Christian Orthodox lawyer and author, Jerusalem.

Nazif al-Khalidi

Nazif al-Khalidi, a Jerusalem engineer. He was one of the principal aides to the German chief engineer Meissner, who supervised the building of the Hijaz Railway, begun in 1900; this railroad linked Damascus and Medina.

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, the elder statesman of Palestinian politics in the 1920s and early 1930s. A graduate of Maktab Mulkiye (Civil Service School) in Constantinople, he held important administrative positions in the Ottoman Empire.
He was the father of Abd aI-Qadir al-Husseini, who became a leader of the Palestinian resistance during the Great Rebellion of 1936-39 and again in the 1948 War (see 253, 396,

On Strike

The Arab commercial center outside Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem, on strike during the Buraq (Wailing Wall) disturbances, 1929.

British Show of Force

British show of force, Jerusalem, August 1929.

Emergency Relief Committee

The Emergency Relief Committee (seen here in session at its headquarters in Jerusalem, 1929) was formed during the 1929 disturbances to aid afflicted Palestinian families.

Palestinian Women Outside High Commissioner's Jerusalem Residence

A delegation of Palestinian women outside the high commissioner’s residence in Jerusalem. The delegation protested the harshness of British measures against the Palestinians during the disturbances. The women wearing hats are Christian. Second left is Mrs.

Motorcade for Womens' Delegation

The motorcade of the women's delegation on its way to the high commissioner's residence.

The Shaw Commission of Inquiry: "disappointment ... and fear"

Members of the Shaw Commission of Inquiry, Jerusalem, October 1929. The Shaw Commission was sent by London to investigate the causes of the 1929 disturbances. Seated center is Sir Walter Shaw, chairman of the commission.

Mourning on Balfour Day (1)

Balfour Day, the Old City of Jerusalem, 2 November 1929. Palestinians and many Arabs commemorated the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) with mourning, as indicated by the black flags.

Mourning on Balfour Day (2)

Balfour Day, the Old City of Jerusalem, 2 November 1929. Palestinians and many Arabs commemorated the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) with mourning, as indicated by the black flags.

Funeral of Muhammad Ali

The funeral procession of Muhammad Ali, one of the foremost Indian Muslim religious leaders and scholars, escorted by Boy Scouts, Jerusalem, 23 January 1931.

Funeral of King Hussein of Hijaz

The funeral of King Hussein of Hijaz, Jerusalem, 4 June 1931.

A Palestinian conference, 1930

A Palestinian conference called on the eve of the departure of the Fourth Palestinian Delegation to London; Jerusalem, March 1930 (see 84). The First Delegation to London in 1921 was followed by two others in 1922.
Raghib al-Nashashibi, mayor of Jerusalem (see 196, 242, 352); and Alfred Roch, prominent Catholic businessman from Jaffa (see

Fourth Palestinian Delegation in London

Members of the Fourth Palestinian Delegation in London, April 1930. The women in the back row are Christian Palestinian secretaries accompanying the delegation. The three men in the same row are Palestinian correspondents in London for Arabic newspapers in Palestine.

The Rise of Political Activism

Young political activists from Nablus just released from prison (ca. 1930) call on their lawyer, Adil Zu'aiter (seated), to thank him for his efforts on their behalf.

Pan-Islamic Conference, 1931

The Pan-Islamic Conference, Jerusalem, December 1931.

Tunisian and Turkish delegates

Tunisian and Turkish delegates to the Pan-Islamic Conference with Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini (see 78). First left is the Tunisian scholar Abd al-Aziz al-Tha'alibi; the figure in the center is the Turkish philosopher Rida Tawfiq.

Istiqlal (Independence) Party

Members of the Istiqlal (Independence) Pan-Arab Party, founded in 1932.

King Faisal I of Iraq Funeral

The funeral cortege of King Faisal I of Iraq passing through Haifa, 1933. The king had died on a visit to Europe, and his body was en route to Iraq.

Aftermath outside of the New Gate

The aftermath of a Palestinian demonstration protesting Zionist mass immigration, New Gate, Jerusalem, 1933.

Intimidation by Air

Aerial show of force by the British over the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, 1933.

British Riot Police

British riot police, mounted and on foot, block the path of a demonstration protesting Zionist mass immigration, Jaffa, 27 October 1933.

Demonstration in Jaffa's Central Square

British mounted police charge into a crowd of demonstrators, Central Square, Jaffa, 27 October 1933.

Police Brutality

The bearded profile of a fallen man in the upper center of the photograph is that of the venerable Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini (see 78), who had been leading the demonstration shown above (see 109-

Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini's Funeral

The funeral of Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husseini, Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, 27 March 1934. Al-Husseini died at the age of eighty-one. The trauma he had suffered at the hands of the British five months earlier in Jaffa (see 111) hastened his death.

First Palestinian Guerilla Operation

Shaikh Izz aI-Din al-Qassam, patriot, social reformer, and religious teacher from Haifa. His work and preaching were conducted mainly among the poorer classes.

Mount of Olives

Aerial view of the Mount of Olives, looking toward the Dead Sea.

Jericho's Orchards

Orchards in Jericho. Many wealthy Palestinians from Jerusalem had winter houses in Jericho.

Ein Karim

Ein Karim, west of Jerusalem

Silwan

The village and valley of Silwan, just east of the walls of Jerusalem, looking south. In the distance note Government House, the residence of the British high commissioner, on the so-called Hill of Evil Counsel!

Abu Ghosh

Abu Ghosh, about fourteen kilometers from Jerusalem, on the road to Jaffa.

Beit Sahur from Shepherds' Field

Beit Sahur seen from Shepherds' Field near Bethlehem, looking east.

Hills of Bethlehem

The hills of Bethlehem. Note the traditional headdress.

Auja River

Water mill on the Auja River near Jaffa.

Hills of Kolonia

Terraced hills seen from Kolonia, a village on the road to Jaffa about eight kilometers west of Jerusalem.

St. George Monastery

The Orthodox monastery of St. George on the Mount of Temptation in the wildemess near Jericho.

Casting Nets

Fishermen of the Sea of Galilee.

Extended Family

An extended family in the village of Beit Sahur, near Bethlehem.

Grains (1)

Grains: of 4,367,629 dunams under grain cultivation, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 4,152,438 dunams.

Grains (2)

Grains: of 4,367,629 dunams under grain cultivation, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 4,152,438 dunams.

Grains (3)

Grains: of 4,367,629 dunams under grain cultivation, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 4,152,438 dunams.

Grains (4)

Grains: of 4,367,629 dunams under grain cultivation, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 4,152,438 dunams.

Bananas

Bananas: 60 percent of the area planted with bananas was Palestinian-owned and cultivated.

Vines

Vines: 86 percent of the area planted with vines was Palestinian-owned and cultivated.

Melons

Melons: of 125,979 dunams planted with melons, the Palestinians owned and cultivated 120,304 dunams.

Olives

Olives: of 600,133 dunams, 99 percent was Palestinian-owned and cultivated.

Vegetable Distribution

Vegetables: of 279,940 dunams, 239,733 dunams were Palestinian-owned and cultivated.

Tobacco

Tobacco: the area under tobacco cultivation was restricted by the Mandatory government to avoid overproduction. Virtually all the land under tobacco cultivation was Palestinian-owned.

Livestock (1)

The animal wealth of the country was also largely Palestinian-owned.

Livestock (2)

The animal wealth of the country was also largely Palestinian-owned.

Church of the Nativity

Bethlehem; the second tower from the left is that of the Church of the Nativity.

Looking Out to Sea

Jaffa, looking out to sea. Until 1936, before the development of the Haifa and Tel Aviv harbors, Jaffa was the main seaport of Palestine.

Jaffa's Central Square

Central Square, Jaffa, soon after the inauguration of the British Mandate. The building with pillars, on the right, is the Grand Serai (see 6, 393).

Nuzhah Quarter from Jaffa

Jaffa, looking toward the new Palestinian residential Nuzhah quarter, ca. 1935. Note the contrast in means of transportation with the previous photograph.

Home in Jaffa

A house interior, Jaffa, ca. 1935.

Tiberias (1)

Tiberias, looking south, ca. 1935. The mosque in the foreground, known as the Upper Mosque, was built at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

Tiberias (2)

Tiberias, looking north toward Mount Hermon, ca. 1935.

Taji Family Residence

The residence of the Taji family, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, ca. 1934.

Bab al-Silsilah

The fountain at Bab al-Silsilah (Gate of the Chain), built during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66), the Old City of Jerusalem.

Taxi Stand

Taxi stand, Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, ca. 1928. Damascus Gate and the Old City walls (see 176) were also built by Suleiman the Magnificent.

View of the Old City

Looking west at the Old City of Jerusalem from the Palestine Archaeological Museum, ca. 1937. In the middle ground is Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate). The building nearest right is the al-Rashidiyyah Secondary School for Boys.

Looking Out Over Jerusalem

Looking northeast at a Palestinian residential quarter just outside Bab al-Zahirah, Jerusalem.

Snowed In

The Old City of Jerusalem under snow, looking toward the Mount of Olives.

Jazzar Mosque

The inner courtyard of the Jazzar Mosque at Acre, built in 1781 by Ahmad al-Jazzar, who in 1799 checked the advance of Napoleon through Palestine with the help of a British naval squadron commanded by Sir Sydney Smith.

Leah's Tomb

The tomb of Leah with embroidered drapery, in the Mosque of Abraham, Hebron.

Beersheba's Mosque

The mosque at Beersheba; its architecture is late Ottoman.

Gaza's Grand Mosque

The Grand Mosque in Gaza, originally a twelfth-century A.D. structure.

David's Tomb

The Muslim shrine and mosque at the site of the tomb of Nabi Daoud (the prophet David), outside the Old City walls, Jerusalem. (See 28 et al.)

The Via Dolorosa

The Via Dolorosa, Fifth Station of the Cross, in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, Jerusalem.

Khalil Raad's Shop

Khalil Raad's shop, Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem (see 72, 124, 125 , 126 , 127 ,

Pottery (1)

The ancient crafts of the potter.

Pottery (2)

The ancient crafts of the potter.

Spice Market

Suq al-Attarin (the Spice Market).

Wedding in Haifa

A Christian wedding, Haifa, 1930. The bridegroom is Hanna Asfour, a Catholic Palestinian lawyer (see 250, 270); the bride, Emily Abu Fadil.

Wedding in Wadi Hunayn

A Muslim wedding, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1935. The bridegroom is Nazif al-Khairi, a district officer; the bride, Samiyah Taji.

Tea Party

Mayor of Jerusalem Raghib al-Nashashibi (see 100, 242, 352), standing center, gives a tea party at his home in honor of Shaikh Abd al-Hayy al-Kitt

The Arab Medical Conference

The Arab Medical Conference (YMCA, Jerusalem, 1933), attended by physicians from various Arab countries.

Ali al-Kassar visits Jerusalem

Ali al-Kassar (front center), an Egyptian actor, visits friends in Jerusalem, 1934. Seated first right is Fawzi al-Ghosein from Ramleh, a graduate in law from Cambridge University, England.

Palestine Broadcasting Station

Palestinian musicians and singers at the Palestine Broadcasting Station, Jerusalem, 1936.

Masquerading as Indian Maharajas and Maharanis

Masquerading as Indian maharajas and maharanis at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Roch, Jaffa, 1924.

The Holy Sepulcher

The Holy Sepulcher, Maundy Thursday, 5 April 1934. Presiding is the Christian Orthodox patriarch. Precariously seated on the scaffolding is Wasif Jawhariyyah (wearing a fez) .

Haj Amin al-Husseini

Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 82), mufti of Jerusalem, flanked by Christian religious dignitaries, ca. 1930.

Visiting the Wailing Wall

Orthodox Jews and others in European dress returning from a visit to the Wailing Wall, mid-1930s (see 55, 90).

Celebrating Passover

Samaritan Jews (in the foreground) celebrating their Passover, Nablus, early 1930s. The Samaritans were a tiny Jewish sect numbering less than two hundred, most of whom lived in Nablus. They used Arabic for everyday speech, but a dialect of Aramaic in their liturgy.

Palestinian Christian Orthodox Conference

A conference of Palestinian Christian Orthodox priests, Ramallah, September 1932.

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi

Ahmad aI-Sharif al-Senussi (holding a staff) visits the Haram aI-Sharif (see 1) in Jerusalem, ca. 1923. He was a leader of the Libyan Senussi tariqah, a religious brotherhood.

Celebrating Moses (1)

Al-Nabi Musa ("the Prophet Moses") was the name given to one of the most important annual religious festivals celebrated by Palestinian Muslims; it entailed a procession on foot or on horseback from Jerusalem to the traditional burial site of Moses, near Jericho (see

Celebrating Moses (2)

Al-Nabi Musa ("the Prophet Moses") was the name given to one of the most important annual religious festivals celebrated by Palestinian Muslims; it entailed a procession on foot or on horseback from Jerusalem to the traditional burial site of Moses, near Jericho (see

"The Least Worthy of You Are the Least Learned" (1)

Staff and alumni of the Dusturiyyah (Constitutional) School, ca. 1919 (see 61); a typical private school. The founder, Khalil Sakakini, is seated first left.

"The Least Worthy of You are the Least Learned" (2)

The Jerusalem Girls' College, ca. 1920; founded by a British Anglican mission. The staff are in the last two rows. The majority of the student body was Palestinian, both Christian and Muslim.

The Staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School

The staff of the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. Seated center is Salim Katul, author of a series of textbooks in Arabic on the natural sciences.

Government Secondary Boys' School's Top Soccer Team

The top soccer team at the Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1923. The men in the fezzes are members of the staff. Salim Katul (see 211) is standing first left.

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts

Wolf Cubs and Boy Scouts with camping gear (transport included!), Government Secondary Boys' School, Jaffa, 1924. The boy third left, first row, is carrying a bag with the Arabic word for "first aid" on it.

Government Secondary Boys' School Carpentry Class

Carpentry class, 1924. The inscription over the door reads, "The least worthy of you are the least learned."

Irfan (Knowledge) School

Students, including Wolf Cubs, and staff of the Irfan (Knowledge) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1922.

Najah School Staff and Graduating Class

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1924; a private school founded in 1918. It became the nucleus of the present Najah University on the West Bank.

Najah School

The student body, including Scout troops, and staff of the Najah School, Nablus, 1924.

Wataniyyah (National) School

The student body and staff of the private Wataniyyah (National) School, Jerusalem, 1925. Seated center is the indefatigable founder and headmaster, Khalil Sakakini (see 61, 209).

Salahiyyah School

The staff of the private Salahiyyah School (so called after Saladin), Nablus, 1926.

The All-Palestine Boy Scout Jamboree

Bir Salim, near Ramleh, 1926. Seated center, third row, is Humphrey Bowman, British director of the Department of Education.

Ladies in a Kindergarten

"Sample" of the kindergarten class at a German Protestant mission school, Schmidt Girls' College, Jerusalem, 1926 (see 241). The young ladies in the picture are all from the same family, the Tajis of Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh.

Young Men's Muslim Association

The founding members of the YMMA - the Young Men's Muslim Association - modeled on the YMCA; Acre, 1928.

The Acre Sports Club

Members of the Sports Club, Acre, 1928. Third right, second row, is Ahmad Shukairi (see 69, 105), later to become chairman of the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization).

Graduates of British Universities

Palestinian students at British universities celebrating the wedding of one of their members, Izz aI-Din al-Shawwa, London, 1928.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (1)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its old premises, Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, 1930.

The Pinnacle of Palestinian Education: The Arab College (2)

Staff and students of the Arab College at its new premises on Jabal al-Mukabbir, "the Mount of the Glorifier," south of Jerusalem, 1938. (This was the site from which the caliph Omar, on his way to Jerusalem to accept its capitulation from the Byzantines in A.D.

...And Its Base: The Village School (1)

At the other end of the spectrum were the village schools. The two schools pictured here are typical of some 420 village schools that existed in Palestine by the end of the Mandate.

...And Its Base: The Village School (2)

At the other end of the spectrum were the village schools. The two schools pictured here (228 and 229) are typical of some 420 village schools that existed in Palestine by the end of the Mandate.

College des Freres

The staff and graduating class of the College des Freres in Jerusalem, 1934. This secondary school was founded by the Franciscan Order in 1875.

Moroccan Students in Nablus

The staff and graduating class of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1932.

Terra Sancta

Terra Sancta College for Boys in Jerusalem, 1932; also founded by the Franciscan Order (see 230).

Palestinian Teachers in Iraq

Young Palestinian teachers pursuing higher studies in Iraq, 1934. Seated center is Akram Zu'aiter, then lecturer at the Teachers' Training College, Baghdad. This photograph illustrates again the cultural interaction between Palestine and the Arab world.

Music in Jaffa (1)

Students of the National Christian Orthodox School, Jaffa, 1938. The school was founded in 1921 by the Christian Orthodox Welfare Society.

Music in Jaffa (2)

School band of the National Christian Orthodox School, Jaffa, 1938. The school was founded in 1921 by the Christian Orthodox Welfare Society.

Rowing on the Cam

Abdurrahman Bushnaq (graduate of the Arab College in Jerusalem), stroke of Jesus College rowing crew (second left), on the River Cam, Cambridge University, where he read English literature, 1935.

The Arab College in the 1940s (2)

Brushing up their Latin. The lecturer, George Hourani, graduated from Oxford University and wrote several books including Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times (Princeton University Press, 1951) and Islamic Rationalism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971).

Schmidt Girls' College Again

The older ladies at the school, Jerusalem, 1947 (see 222).

The Arab Higher Committee Members

The Arab Higher Committee, comprising representatives of all Palestinian parties, was formed on 25 April 1936. One of its first acts was to call for a general strike and civil disobedience "to continue ... until ...

Arrival of Sir Herbert Samuel

Jaffa, June 1920: Sir Herbert Samuel (in white peaked helmet), a British Zionist politician appointed as first high commissioner, about to set foot on Palestinian soil to inaugurate the British civilian administration.

Search of a Muslim Dignitary

Jerusalem, April 1920. Indian troopers in the British army evenhandedly search a Muslim dignitary.

Search of a Christian Priest

Jerusalem, April 1920. Indian troopers in the British army evenhandedly search a Christian priest.

Third Palestinian National Congress

The Third Palestinian National Congress, Haifa, 14 December 1920. Delegates to the congress represented the main cities and districts of Palestine.
Third right, last row, is the future Palestinian leader Haj Amin al-Husseini (see 88, 100, 202,

Fourth Palestinian National Congress

The Fourth Palestinian National Congress, Jerusalem, 25 May 1921. (See 87, 89).

First Palestinian Delegation to UK

The First Palestinian Delegation to the United Kingdom in working session in London, 1921. Two of the six-man delegation (first and fourth left) were Christian Palestinians.

First Delegation in Geneva

The First Delegation in Geneva to attend the Syrian- Palestinian Conference, timed to coincide with the League of Nations' meeting to discuss the proposed Mandatory system.

Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa

The Sixth Palestinian National Congress, Jaffa, October 1925 (see 68, 82-83, 87).

The Arab Higher Committee Members

The Arab Higher Committee, comprising representatives of all Palestinian parties, was formed on 25 April 1936. One of its first acts was to call for a general strike and civil disobedience "to continue ... until ...

Oath of Allegiance

Residents of Abu Ghosh, a village west of Jerusalem (see 118), taking the oath of allegiance to the Arab Higher Committee, April 1936.

Searches (1)

Steel-helmeted British troops search a Palestinian in Jaffa.

Searches (2)

Steel-helmeted British troops search a Palestinian in Jerusalem and look under a fez just in case!

Searches (3)

A South African police dog (246) comes to the aid of the British.  This photograph and details are taken from the Illustrated London News, June 1936.

Killing Time

Inmates in a detention camp while away the time.

Detained

A Christian Orthodox priest is held alongside Muslim religious dignitaries in a detention camp. Cross-legged on the floor is Michel Mitri, the Christian Orthodox head of the Jaffa Labour Union, also detained.

Hanna Asfour

First left is Hanna Asfour, Greek Catholic lawyer and legal adviser to the Arab Labour Society in Haifa (see 194, 270). Traditional dress was worn by urban detainees as a gesture of defiance.

Welcoming Guerillas

Villagers welcoming mounted guerrillas, summer 1936.

Sabotage

A train derailed by guerrillas, summer 1936.

Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini

Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini (center) with aides.

Abd al-Halim al-Julani

Second right is Abd al-Halim al-Julani, guerrilla commander for the Hebron district. The banner is the Palestinian national flag.

Hamad Zawata

Hamad Zawata, guerrilla commander for the Nablus district.

Palestine and Oil

The oil pipeline to Haifa from Iraq sabotaged by guerrillas, summer 1936. This was probably one of the earliest instances of the impingement of the Palestine problem on the flow of oil to the West.

Laying Siege to Jaffa's Old City

The British cordon off the Old City of Jaffa before the demolition starts.

Volunteers from Arab Countries

On 25 August 1936 Fawzi al-Qawukji (third right) infiltrated into Palestine at the head of some 150 volunteers from neighboring Arab countries. Lebanese by birth, Qawukji was something of a Garibaldi figure in Arab popular perception.

Qawukji Organizes Palestinian Guerillas

Qawukji organized the Palestinian guerrillas of central Palestine, and led them through several fierce engagements with British forces in which the latter used planes, tanks, and heavy artillery. Here he is seen taking the salute as a guerrilla column marches past, ca. September 1936.

The Peel Commission and Partition

The members of the Palestine Royal Commission arrived in Palestine in November 1936. Third left is Lord Peel, chairman of the commission.

British Reinforcements (1)

Royal Air Force armored cars (266) and an army base just outside the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (267).

British Reinforcements (2)

Royal Air Force armored cars (266) and an army base just outside the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (267).

Smashing the Palestinian Political Infrastructure

On 1 October 1937 the Arab Higher Committee (see 242) was dissolved. Four of its members, Dr.

Martial Law

On 11 November 1937 military courts were established for the trial of offenses including the carrying of arms, which was now made punishable by death. Between 1937 and 1939, the British executed by hanging 112 Palestinians under the new law.

Lewis

Note the sole light machine gun (Lewis) on the ground.

Abd aI-Rahim al-Haj Muhammad

One of the most prominent guerrilla leaders of the rebellion, Abd aI-Rahim al-Haj Muhammad (center foreground), who died in action against British troops on 28 March 1938.

Guerilla Stamps

A guerrilla stamp, 1938, showing the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock.

Solidarity

Collecting contributions for afflicted Palestinian families, Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem. Note the Hotel Fast on the left.

More British Reinforcements

Heavy British reinforcements were sent to fight the Palestinians in 1938-39. Some of the leading British officers of World War II held command in Palestine at this time, including Generals J. G. Dill and A. P. Wavell, then Brigadier B. L. Montgomery, and ''Bomber'' Harris.

Arming One Side and Disarming the Other

Fire practice under British supervision at the Jewish settlement of Ein Geb, 1938. The British authorities systematically disarmed the Palestinian population while building up Jewish military strength.

Special Night Squads

The SNS (Special Night Squads) composed of British and Jewish personnel, were organized by the British in 1938-39 to assault Palestinian villages on hit-and-run raids.

British Police Search Palestinians

British police and army patrols search Palestinians in the Old City of Jerusalem, ca. 1936.

Mass Arrests

Making collective arrests outside Bab al-Zahirah (Herod's Gate), Jerusalem, September 1938. The British held 816 Palestinians in detention camps in 1937, and 2,463 in 1938. In 1939 they detained 5,679 Palestinians out of a total Palestinian population of ca. one million.

Brutal British Tactics

A favorite British punitive measure was blowing up the houses of "suspects" and those of their relatives. Shown here are the ruins of the house of a "suspect" in Jenin, September 1938.

Laying Siege to Jerusalem's Arab College

Another favorite punitive measure was the harassment and occupation of Palestinian educational institutions by British troops.

Assault on the Old City

An advance detachment of British troops moving to the assault just before the recapture of the Old City.

Back in Control

Back in control, the British allow the inhabitants of the Old City to line up for water.

Party for Seychelles exiles

In December 1938 the Seychelles exiles (see 268 - 269) were released, but for several years they were not allowed to return to Palestine.

British Anxiety and the 1939 London Conference

The British government, fearful of the impact of its repressive Palestine policies on British interests throughout the Middle East as World War II approached, and impressed by the intensity of Palestinian resistance, called for a conference to be held in London in February 1939 to discuss the Palest

The London Conference and the White Paper of 1939

The London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939: a meeting between the British and Arab delegates.
On either side of the Palestinian delegation are the other Arab delegations. Facing the Palestinians are the British, with Sir Neville Chamberlain, prime minister, presiding.
After the London Conference, the British government issued a White Paper (statement of policy) in which it promised to protect Palestinian land rights in considerable areas of the country against Zionist land acquisition, and to solicit Palestinian "acquiescence" to Zionist mass immigration, but onl

Palestinian Volunteers Against the Axis

In spite of their bitterness at the brutality of the British suppression of their rebellion, about nine thousand Palestinians volunteered during World War II for service in the British forces against the Axis powers. Some of these volunteers are seen here on parade in Nablus in May 1941.

The Stern Gang Assassinates Lord Moyne

Lord Walter Moyne (1880-1944), close friend of Winston Churchill, British colonial secretary in 1941-42, and subsequently minister resident in the Middle East.

The Irgun and Transjordan

A poster of the Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization), "Irgun" for short, which began its terrorist campaign against the Palestinians in September 1937, and was the parent body of the Stem Gang.

Menachem Begin and Vladimir Jabotinsky

Menachem Begin, former prime minister of Israel, addressing a rally soon after the establishment of Israel.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (1)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (2)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Zionist Strategic Colonization (3)

About three hundred Zionist rural colonies, collective and noncollective, were established between 1882 and 1948 in Palestine. Throughout this period, however, the vast majority of the Jewish population (75 percent in 1948) continued to live in the three main cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv.

Illegal Immigration (1)

At the end of World War II, the Zionist leadership decided to undermine the British regime in Palestine as a prelude to the establishment of a Jewish stat

Illegal Immigration (2)

At the end of World War II, the Zionist leadership decided to undermine the British regime in Palestine as a prelude to the establishment of a Jewish state.

The King David Hotel (1)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

The King David Hotel (2)

Another tactic chosen by Zionist leaders was terrorism.

Arms Dumps in the Colonies (1)

Many of the Zionist colonies (see 296, 297, 298) had arms dumps hidden among their civilian population and beneath ostensibly civili

Arms Dumps in the Colonies (2)

Many of the Zionist colonies (see 296, 297, 298) had arms dumps hidden among their civilian population and beneath ostensibly civili

Arab League Warnings

A meeting of the Political Committee of the Arab League in Bludan, Syria, June 1946. The committee expressed concern about the rising tide of Zionist terrorism in Palestine, and protested increasing American support of Zionism.

Haifa Railroad Station

The railroad station at Haifa blown up by Zionist terrorists, fall 1946.

Hostage Taking by the Irgun

Hostage taking and sometimes the murder of hostages were two terrorist practices introduced by the Irgun under Menachem Begin. This photograph shows the bodies of two British army sergeants, Clifford Martin (left) and Mervyn Paice.

The Haganah Starts its Offensive

The farmhouse of the Abu Laban family, prosperous Palestinian orange growers, near Petah Tikva.

Acre

Acre, looking south toward the Old City and the new suburbs beyond. By the end of the Mandate the total population of Acre was ca. 12,360, of whom ca. 50 were Jews and the rest Palestinians.

The Town of Safed, northern Galilee

The town of Safed in northern Galilee; the round objects in the foreground are "hay cakes" drying in the sun (they were placed under cooking vessels to protect the latter from direct contact with the fire) . By the end of the Mandate the total population of Safed was ca. 11,930, of whom ca.

Ramallah's terraces and houses

Houses and terraces of Ramallah. By the end of the Mandate the total population of Ramallah was ca. 5,000, all of whom were Palestinians, the majority Christians. Ramallah was captured by Israel during the 1967 War.

Nablus

The population of Nablus (ca. 23,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian.

Hebron, from a balcony

Hebron, from a balcony. The population of Hebron (ca. 25,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian. The city was captured by Israel in 1967.

Gaza from Jabal Muntar

Gaza, from Jabal Muntar, 1943. The population of Gaza (ca. 34,000 by the end of the Mandate) was entirely Palestinian. The city was captured by Israel in 1956, and again in 1967.

Aerial view of Beit Jala

Beit Jala, near Bethlehem, from the air. At the end of the Mandate its population was ca. 4,000, almost all of whom were Christian Palestinians. The village was captured by Israel in 1967.

The Stout Sea Walls of Acre

The stout sea walls of Acre, originally constructed in the ninth century A.D.

Jaffa, mid-1940s

Jaffa in the mid-1940s. By the end of the Mandate Jaffa's population was about 100,000, of whom about 30 percent were Jews and the rest Palestinians.

A villa in Ramallah

Distinctive local architecture: a villa in Ramallah.

Interior of al-Aqsa Mosque

Colonnaded interior of the al-Aqsa Mosque. Note the stained-glass windows.

The Mihrab

The mihrab ("niche pointing in the direction of Mecca") and minbar ("pulpit") of the al-Aqsa Mosque.

Jerusalem street scene

Jerusalem street scene outside Jaffa Gate, early 1940s.

The Tannous Building

The Tannous building (owned by a Protestant Palestinian family), West Jerusalem, where much of the property was Palestinian-owned, early 1940s.

A house in Talbiyya, West Jerusalem

A house in the Palestinian residential quarter of Talbiyya, West Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (1)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (2)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Palestinian Urban Architecture (3)

Example of Palestinian urban architecture, Jerusalem, early 1940s.

Jerusalem's Arab Fair

The Arab Fair when it was first held in Jerusalem, 1933.

Hassan Shak'ah soap factory

Wrapping soap in the Hassan Shak'ah factory, Nablus, ca. 1940.

Matches

Match factory, Nablus, 1940.

Tatli-Sert Tobacco

Bales of Tatli-Sert tobacco in storage, Nazareth, ca. 1940.

Faidi aI-AIami and family

Faidi aI-AIami with his wife and son Musa, Jerusalem, 1919 (see 67). Musa received a law degree from Cambridge University.

Reverend Salih Saba and family

Reverend Salih Saba and family, Jerusalem, ca. 1922. Fuad Saba (standing first left) was the first Palestinian licensed auditor to practice under the British Mandate. By 1948 the F. Saba Company had branches in Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Egypt.

Schoolmasters

Schoolmasters, Jaffa, ca. 1923. Seated is Thabit al-Khalidi, author of a chemistry textbook, who became Jordanian ambassador to the United Nations and later to Iran.

Family Portrait

A prominent Muslim family, Jaffa, mid-I920s.

Guard of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem

Guard of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem in the traditional costume of the qawwas ("consular guard").

Dr. Daoud Bulos and family

Dr. Daoud Bulos, a Protestant medical doctor, with his wife Adla and son Nasib (later a lawyer), Acre, 1923.

Akram Zu'aiter and Ahmad Shukairi

The two young men in the front row of this photograph are left, Akram Zu'aiter (see 233, 235) and right, Ahmad Shukairi (see 69,

Hashim al-Jayyusi

Hashim al-Jayyusi (1901-81), mayor of Tulkarm from 1939 to 1948 (see 376). Subsequently, he served six times as Jordanian minister of finance and was acting prime minister and deputy speaker of the Senate in Jordan.

Villagers from Deir Yassin

Villagers from Deir Yassin, 1927. Building contractor Haj Ahmad al-As'ad with his son Muhammad, his wife (resting her hand on his shoulder), and a relative. (See 411)

Raghib al-Nashashibi

Raghib al-Nashashibi (see 100, 196, 242), an outstanding public figure under the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate, and the Jordanian administration.

Mrs. Tawfiq Bisisu with her children

Mrs. Tawfiq Bisisu with her children, Gaza, 1933. Proudly holding a magazine is Mu'in, later a poet and playwright closely associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

Ibrahim Tuqan

Palestine's poet laureate, Ibrahim Tuqan, a graduate of the American University of Beirut; NabIus, 1934. From 1936 to 1941 Tuqan was in charge of the Arabic section of the Palestine Broadcasting Station.

Khalil Baydas

Khalil Baydas from Nazareth (1874-1949), Russian scholar and pioneer of the modern Palestinian novel. As early as 1898, he had translated some of the works of Tolstoy and Pushkin into Arabic. Khalil was the father of Yusuf Baydas, a Palestinian banker.

Adil Zu'aiter

Adil Zu'aiter (see 102) with his two sons, Wa'il (on his lap) and Umar, Nablus, 1935. Umar became an artillery officer in Kuwait.

Hasan Sidqi al-Dajani

Hasan Sidqi al-Dajani, a Jerusalem journalist, lawyer, and politician. As legal counsel to the Palestinian Union of Drivers, he organized the strike by the transport sector in 1936 at the beginning of the Great Rebellion (see 242ff.).

Muna Asfour

Muna Asfour, later married to architect Bahij Saba (now an American citizen), Haifa, 1937.

A Day at the Sea

Charlotte Jallad (center) from Jaffa, with friends on a trip to the Dead Sea, 1937.

Palestinian Students at the American University in Beirut

A predominantly Palestinian group of political science students at the American University of Beirut, 1937.

Asma Tubi and Safiyyah Riyahi

Palestinian author Asma Tubi from Nazareth (on arm of chair); and Safiyyah Riyahi from Jaffa (seated), who became a lecturer in Arabic at Beirut College for Women; 1938.

George Antonius

After graduating from Cambridge University, George Antonius (1891-1942) began his civil service career in Palestine first in the Education Department and then in the Secretariat (the British Mandatory Executive).

Gather around

Except three gentlemen (the second, third, and fourth from the left in the first standing row), all the others are Christian Palestinians representing a cross-section of ages and professions.

The occasion for this gathering is unknown; the location, Nablus; the date, ca. 1925.

Shepherds and a Schoolmaster

Shepherds and a schoolmaster, with their respective flocks, cross paths outside the Church of All Nations, Gethsemane.

Palestine Broadcasting Station's "Oriental band"

The "oriental band" (takht) of the Palestine Broadcasting Station entertaining guests at a private party, Jerusalem, 1940.

Government Girls' School

Girl Guides of the Government Girls' School in Nazareth, 1940.

Dancing in the gymnasium

Dancing in the gymnasium, Jerusalem Girls' College, early 1940s.

The Merchant of Venice in Ramallah

Performers in The Merchant of Venice at the Friends' Boys School, Ramallah, ca. 1941. Sa'id Abu Hamdeh, later a professional photographer, is first right.

An-Najah English Debating Society

The English Debating Society of the Najah (Success) School, Nablus, 1942. Isam Abbasi (standing second from right) became a poet and novelist as well as literary contributor to al-Ittihad, a newspaper in Haifa.

Ruth Raad

Ruth Raad, daughter of photographer Khalil Raad, in the traditional costume of Ramallah, ca. 1943.

Moghannam Moghannam

Moghannam Moghannam, an American-educated Protestant lawyer from Ramallah in the "oriental" room of his house, ca. 1944.

Transjordanian Frontier Force

Troopers of the TJFF (Transjordanian Frontier Force), recruited mostly from among Palestinians, prepare to leave for London to attend victory celebrations at the end of World War II.

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine

Fourth Conference of the Arab Mayors of Palestine, Gaza, 1945. In the front row, left to right, are Hashim al-Jayyusi (see 350), Rushdi al-Shawwa (Gaza), Omar Bitar (Jaffa), Shaikh Mustafa al-Khairi (Ramleh), and Suleiman Tuqan (Nablus).

Time for a bath

Aliyyah al-Khairi bathing her son Fawwaz (now an airline pilot), Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1945.

Leaders of the Arab Protestant Community of Palestine

Leaders of the Arab Protestant community of Palestine, 1946. Reverend Butrus Nasir from Bir Zeit is seated third from left.

Wajidah Taji

Wajidah Taji, Wadi Hunayn, near Ramleh, 1946. Wajidah became principal aide to Musa al-Alami (see 343) at the Boys' Farm in Jericho, run by the Arab Development Society.

Mayor Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari

Muslim dignitaries conferring in the courtyard of the Ibrahimi (Abraham) Mosque, Hebron, 1947 (see 180). The mayor of Hebron, Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-Ja'bari, is on the right.

George Shibr

The board of directors and some members of the Arab Architects' and Engineers' Association of Jerusalem at the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, 1947.

Dr. Nimr Tuqan

Dr. Nimr Tuqan, a pathologist and brilliant mimic from Nablus, with nurses at the Haifa Government Hospital, 1947. The brother of Ibrahim Tuqan (see 355), he became chief pathologist at the American University Hospital in Beirut.

Women's Teachers' Training College

A singing recital at the Women's Teachers' Training College, Jerusalem, spring 1947.

Schmidt Girls' College

Boarders at Schmidt Girls' College in the orange orchards of Jericho, 1947.

Beit Jala Wedding

Wedding portrait of Dr. Jabra al-A'raj and his bride, Lydia, Beit Jala, ca. 1947.

Anton Attallah

Anton Attallah, judge in the district courts of Jerusalem and Haifa (1939-43), deputy mayor of Jerusalem (1944-46), and minister of foreign affairs for Jordan (1963-67).

The British Entrapped

Barbed wire and other barriers put up by the British around their administrative compound (left) in central Jerusalem, for protection against acts of terrorism by Zionist groups, fall 1947.

The Importation of a Military Industry

As early as 1945, David Ben-Gurion (then chairman of the Jewish Agency Executive) arranged on a visit to the United States for the purchase of entire military plants, which were being sold ostensibly as scrap at the end of the war.

Cairo Street Rejects Palestine Partition

On 29 November 1947 a resolution recommending the partition of Palestine into a Jewish state and a Palestinian state was virtually forced through the United Nations General Assembly by the United States. It was received with shock and consternation by the entire Arab and Muslim worlds.

UN Partition Plan Facilitates Civil War

The UN partition recommendation (a resolution by the UN General Assembly is not binding) precipitated a series of Jewish-Palestinian clashes. These clashes escalated into total civil war during the remaining months of the British Mandate, which ended on 15 May 1948.

Zionist Terrorism

A bomb thrown from a passing taxi at a bus in the Palestinian residential quarter outside Herod's Gate, Jerusalem, on 29 December 1947 killed seventeen Palestinian civilians.

Zionism's Child Casualties

Palestinian policeman carrying a child victim of the incident recorded in 391.

Semiramis in Ruins

Ruins of the Semiramis Hotel, located in the Palestinian residential quarter of Bak'a in West Jerusalem.

Take Cover!

Palestinian civilians (and British constables) taking cover from sniper fire, Jerusalem, February 1948.

'Palestine Post' Explosion

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: an explosion at the offices of the Palestine Post in Jerusalem killed twenty Jewish civilians on 1 February 1948.

Explosion along Ben Yehuda Street

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: fifty-seven Jewish civilians died in an explosion on Ben Yehuda Street in Jerusalem on 22 February 1948.

Attack on Jewish Agency Headquarters

Adopting the tactics introduced by Zionist terrorists, the Palestinian resistance struck back with booby-trapped vehicles against Jewish targets: twelve Jewish civilians were killed at the Jewish Agency headquarters in Jerusalem on 11 March 1948.

Fawzi al-Qawukji

Both sides received volunteers from outside the country. The Zionists had two organizations for the purpose of recruiting such volunteers: GAHAL and MAHAL. GAHAL trained some twenty thousand volunteers at various European bases and transported them to Palestine.

Arab Liberation Army (ALA) Members

Both sides received volunteers from outside the country. The Zionists had two organizations for the purpose of recruiting such volunteers: GAHAL and MAHAL. GAHAL trained some twenty thousand volunteers at various European bases and transported them to Palestine.

The Battle for the Roads (1)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

The Battle for the Roads (2)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

The Battle for the Roads (3)

Photographs 405, 406, and 407, taken in the Jerusalem district in the spring of 1948, show an armored truck carrying fortification materials, an armored per

Hebron Ambush

In 408, Palestinian irregulars deploy to set up an ambush, Hebron district, spring 1948.

Castel Counterattack

On the night of April 7-8, under the command of Abd aI-Qadir al-Husseini (see 253, 396), Palestinian irregulars counteratt

Castel Recaptured

On April 8 the Palestinians recaptured Castel, but Abd aI-Qadir was killed while leading his men. This is a photograph of his funeral on April 9 at the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.

Deir Yassin

While the Haganah was battling to recapture Castel on 9 April 1948, eighty men of the Irgun, on orders from Menachem Begin, attacked the tiny village of Deir Yassin (shown here) in the western suburbs of Jerusalem, about three miles east of Castel and next to the Jewish neighborhood of Givat Sha

Altogether nearly two hundred Palestinian villages were attacked and conquered by Zionist forces before the end of the Mandate on 15 May 1948. Many of the inhabitants suffered injury or death, and all were expelled or fled in fear from their homes.

Irgun Terrorism

Irgunists moving through holes blasted in Palestinian houses.

Fleeing Jaffa

With no proper military organization or civil defense, the morale of the Palestinian civilian population broke under the twin offensives by the Haganah and the Irgun. Here women and children salvage some belongings as they flee the city.

Into the Sea

Palestinians driven into the sea at Jaffa Harbor, late April 1948. With the land routes cut off by the Haganah, tens of thousands of the citizens of Jaffa and neighboring villages fled by boat to Gaza and Egypt; scores were drowned.

Acre's Siege

Haganah forces laying siege to Acre, ca. 16 May 1948. Acre also lay outside the Jewish state as envisioned in the UN partition recommendation.

Acre's Fall

Civilian inhabitants of Acre being herded into prison after the fall of the town, 17 May 1948.

Left in Ruins

Ruins of the village of Sumeiriya, just north of Acre, typifying the fate of nearly four hundred Palestinian villages by the end of 1948.

Haganah in Jerusalem

A Haganah military column arrives in Jerusalem from Tel Aviv, April 1948, in accordance with Plan Dalet (see 409, 410, 411).

Night Fighting

Night fighting in Jerusalem, early May 1948.

Scenes of Destruction (1)

Scenes of devastation in the Palestinian residential quarters of East Jerusalem, April to early May 1948:  Ruins of a house in the Sa'ad Sa'id quarter.

Scenes of Destruction (2)

Scenes of devastation in the Palestinian residential quarters of East Jerusalem, April to early May 1948:  Ruins of the Musrara quarter.

Scenes of Destruction (3)

Scenes of devastation in the Palestinian residential quarters of East Jerusalem, April to early May 1948: ruins of the commercial center outside Jaffa Gate.

Count Bernadotte

On 13 May 1948 Count Folke Bernadotte, member of the Swedish royal family and International Red Cross representative in Europe during the later stages of World War II, was appointed by the United Nations as a mediator to seek a settlement of the Palestine conflict.

Abandoning Ship

General Sir Alan Cunningham, British high commissioner, inspecting a guard of honor as he left his official residence in Jerusalem for the last time, 14 May 1948. The British Mandate for Palestine came to its ignominious end on 15 May 1948.

Nahr al-Barid

A typical Palestinian refugee camp at Nahr al-Barid in northern Lebanon, winter 1948.